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Chapter 15.  Overall the humanities have been positive toward nature, but some have been indifferent  Force that ultimately rules the universe Called.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15.  Overall the humanities have been positive toward nature, but some have been indifferent  Force that ultimately rules the universe Called."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15

2  Overall the humanities have been positive toward nature, but some have been indifferent  Force that ultimately rules the universe Called Nature by the west Called Brahman in India Called Tao in China Called Dharma to Buddhists

3  Romanticism is a movement in art, literature, music and philosophy  Equate the words “natural” and “free”  Nature and humanity are part of the same whole

4 ROMAN POET- LUCRETIUSGENESIS  “On the Nature of Things”  Attributed the beginning of the natural world to a mighty collision of atoms.  Predicts the world will end in a violent explosion  Nature is awesome, powerful and dangerous  Bible passage says that humans “…fill this earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature…”  Some say this means we are responsible for its care, others feel we may do with it as we please

5  Rebellious young men studying for the priesthood objected to the strict training  Urged fellow student to discover the natural world  Roots of great poetic theme- the identification of unspoiled Nature with youth and joy and all good things

6  Cities were filthy, (plague), filled with poverty  used humanities to escape to pristine nature  Midsummer’s Night Dream, The Tempest

7  Sir William Temple, believed in “deism” (Nature is like a clock created by God or a “clock maker”, left it to run unchanged forever and saw no need to intervene)  Believed that as the “clock” slowed down nature would wither and die and all life would perish

8  Believed not only Nature, but humanity itself was decaying (hedonism)  Later, artists and writers perceived that options existed, Nature came to mean the out-of-doors with fresh, clean air, part of the world not destroyed by factories

9  Socrates believed that being alone in lifeless nature could never take the place of stimulating conversation with his companions.  Cities are where culture, sophistication, arts and philosophy are found

10  American mythology is urban. “Trailblazers” were brave pioneers who tamed the wilderness  Killed the “uncivilized savages”  Felt it was their obligation to spread their civilization

11  Most famous American environmentalist of 19 th century  Naturalist-someone who chooses to live far from society in a natural environment

12  Environmentalism stemmed from a lock of need to enjoy companionship and conversation in urban surroundings  Nature is not a universal cause, it is the road to personal happiness  Let those who choose to work in crowded, dirty cities continue to do so

13  “The World is Too Much with Us”  Focused on “getting and spending”  Believed nature was capable healing itself and those who leave urban society

14  Nature can be portrayed as both terrifying and majestically beautiful  Moby Dick- the whale (God/Nature) is not benevolent or caring, is unreasonably powerful

15  Warns against meddling with nature  Dr. Frankenstein creates a creature that will live forever and be “perfect”  Nature should be admired not analyzed or messed with

16  Long tradition of a deeply spiritual relationship with nature  Their gods watch over various aspects: rivers, hunting, cycle of life and death  Rituals with songs and dances to intensify these relationships

17  Written as an indictment of the arrogance of dominant culture  Narrator is sent to Africa to find Kurtz (company’s chief trader)  Kurtz has become “savage”, kills anyone who opposes him, stole a native woman from her husband  Ends with narrator lying to Kurtz’s wife, claiming his last words were of her

18  1980’s scientists began warning about climate change. Enhanced by deforestation Carbon emissions  An Inconvenient Truth- won acclaim and awards for presenting Climate Change Leads to higher sea levels Species would vanish Reduced food supply and drinkable water

19  If you ask people on the street whether we should worry about the environment they say yes, but know pollution is a necessary part of modern life.  Should we live like Conrad’s narrator, content with a lie? Or can we hope that scientists are right that global warming is a natural cycle and poses no danger?


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