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Taking ABA into the Natural Environment

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1 Taking ABA into the Natural Environment
Angela Saturno, MS, BCBA Syracuse, NY Shelli M. Harris, MS, BCBA Milford, NH

2 Instructional Technologies derived from Behavior Analysis
Fluency-Based Instruction Precision Teaching Errorless Learning Incidental Teaching Instructional Technologies Programmed Instruction Personalized System of Instruction Naturalistic Behavioral Approaches B.F. Skinner Programmed instruction allows student to progress at their own rate. Now on computer. Ordered sequence of items, response, feedback, progression or go back. PSI-Fred S. Keller programmed learning in the classroom Script Fading Discrete Trial Instruction Pivotal Response Training Direct Instruction

3 An Implicit Technology of Generalization
Train and Hope – Generalization is not actively pursued Sequential Modification – Systematically train for generalization Introduce to Natural Maintaining Contingencies – Transfer of behavior control from the teacher/experimenter to natural contingencies Train Sufficient Exemplars – Teach another, then another, then another, until generalization occurs consistently Train Loosely – Careful, restricted conditions vs. looser more variable conditions Use Indiscriminable Contingencies – Intermittent schedules of reinforcement…never knows in which setting a response will or will not be reinforced (Stokes & Baer, 1977)

4 Naturalistic Behavioral Approaches
Naturalistic teaching involves using materials and other activities in which the child finds interesting and arranging the environment to improve speech, increase spontaneous language, and encourage generalization Examples of naturalistic approaches Pivotal Response Training (PRT) Incidental Teaching (IT) Script Fading Naturalistic procedures Loosely structured sessions Trials initiated and paced by the child Use of stimulus that may be selected by the child Variation of stimuli across trials A variety of prompts Incorporates naturalistic reinforcement Naturalistic teaching involves using materials in which the child finds interesting and arranging the environment to increase speech and encourage generalization. Three types of Naturalistic approaches include pivotal response training, incidental teaching and script fading. When using naturalistic procedures the sessions are less structured and involve the use of a variety of stimuli, natural reinforcement and prompting procedures (Cowen & Allen, 2007)

5 Naturalistic Behavioral Approaches
The three general principles include: Natural consequences Occur naturally and do not require rigid programming Incorporation of mediators Training using stimuli in which the student will come in contact in other situations and in the natural environment Training diversely Training with less rigidity under varying conditions using a variety of stimuli More closely matches naturally occurring events Generalization is encouraged by using natural consequences, incorporating mediators and training with diversity. An example of a natural consequence would be if a child see the trainer holding an interesting toy and request for the toy (either through prompting or independently) the child gets the toy. An example of incorporating mediators involves training loosely for example instead of using the same rigid SD the trainer will present a variety of SD. When we talk about training with diversity what we’re really saying is training can occur under a variety of conditions. For example, we can teach color identification during a board, while looking at a book or while picking out clothing. Cowen and Allen suggest that all of these procedures are meant to loosen up the teaching environment so it is more like what the student will experience in every day life (Cowen & Allen, 2007)

6 Naturalistic Behavioral Approach: Research
Ingersoll and Schreibman (2006) taught object imitation using a naturalistic behavioral approach Contingent imitation – Therapist imitated child's motions with objects, vocalizations, & gestures Linguistic mapping- provided a running commentary Interspersed contingent imitation with bids for child to imitate therapists behavior Actions modeled with novel toys Used 3 trials before physically prompting Results: Participants increased imitation skills and generalized these skills to novel environments. Also increased language, pretend play, and joint attention. Ingersoll and Schreibman used a behavioral approach to teach object imitation using a multiple baseline design across 5 participants. Participants exhibited an increase in imitation skills and these skills generalized to novel environments. An addition, collateral effects were exhibited in language, pretend play and joint attention. (Ingersoll & Schreibman, 2006)

7 The Motivating Operation (MO)
Motivation The Motivating Operation (MO) An environmental event or stimulus condition that momentarily alters the reinforcing effect of desired events Increases the frequency of behavior that has produced the reinforcer in the past (Michael, J. 1993, 2000)

8 Motivation in naturalistic settings
Importance of pairing yourself up with reinforcers Satiation/Deprivation-popcorn & grapes “Best reinforcers” are accessed through us We may give the reinforcer non- contingently (freely) at first. We may slide in a few “requests” or target skills

9 Multiple Control of the Mand: Research
Motivating Operation (MO) as an independent variable Transferred the control of the mand to the motivating operation (for some this may take explicit and systematic fading) When both the item and MO are present; mand considered multiply controlled (part tact/part mand) Ask for item when MO is high even if item is not present Rolling time delay: item present and mand occurs, considered multiply controlled (MC) if within 15 seconds mand = MC (impure) if mand occurred between 16 seconds - 2-min= pure mand Prompt fade procedures (Sweeney-Kerwin, Carbone, O’Brien, Zecchin, Janecky, 2007)

10 Preference assessment
Single-Stimulus Preference Assessment Items are presented one at a time to the child, who can interact with the item Identifies a wide variety of reinforcers Paired-Choice Preference Assessment Two items are presented simultaneously to the child, who has to choose one item Rank the order of each item Multiple-Stimulus Preference Assessment Multiple items are presented simultaneously to the child, who can choose one item. Access to item is granted (30 seconds) Selected items are then removed (without replacement). Other items re presented (different order) Rank student’s preferences in order chosen. More efficient than paired-choice.

11

12 (Berg, Wacker, & Steege, 1995)

13 (DeLeon & Iwata, 1996)

14 Incidental Teaching Interactions between an adult and child
Arises naturally in an unstructured situation (e.g. free play) Child initiated Child initiates (look, request, vocal, gesture, sign) Adult provides attention (physical approach, eye contact, questioning look) Adult decides what behavior is to be obtained Adult decides what prompt level to employ Incidental teaching initially designed to facilitate generalization To facilitate spontaneous use of language (Hart & Risley, 1975)

15 Incidental Teaching: Research
Taught children nouns-labels for items they requested “truck” Taught compound sentences “I want a truck” to increase adult asked, “why?” “What are you going to do with it?” then prompted use of whole sentence “I want a truck so I can play with it” Adult directed request to peer “Ask Bill to get it for you” Results replicated earlier studies by Hart & Risley (1968 & 1974) Increased unprompted use of compound sentences in all 11 children Increased first to teachers Then increased to peers who attended to the child’s request for play materials (Hart & Risley, 1975)

16 Incidental Teaching: Research
Increasing reading skills Two children with autism acquired sight word reading skills in the context of a play activity. Access to toy was granted when label of toy was selected Up to a FO5 Generalization probes showed reading skills to locate toys in labeled boxes In a 1986 study, researchers taught two children with autism sight word reading during play activities. Children gained access to toys by selecting the toy label. The tasks required increasingly complex visual discrimination during the paly activities. The students acquired 5- choice discrimination and also demonstrated reading skills by locating toys in labeled boxes (McGee, Krantz & McClannahan, 1986)

17 Scripts and script fading
Scrip fading is used to teach verbal interactions Students learn a script and then it is faded Ex: “I like dolls” would be faded to “I like” then “I” and then just a blank paper, then nothing Scripts can be presented as written or auditory stimuli The use of scripts and script fading allows fading of verbal and other prompts Responses may generalize once fading starts i.e. if taught, “I like dolls,” student may continue to verbalize the script and say new words Scripts and script fading is used to teach verbal interactions to individuals with autism and other language delays. A teacher presents a script and once the student learns it, fading begins. For example if teaching the script , “I like dolls” first we would teach the scrip to mastery, then fade the last word….then the second to the last word and so on until just a blank paper is presented. Fading continues until no visual stimulus is presented. The nice thing about using scripts and script fading is that it reduces the need for verbal prompts. Also once the script is faded the student may continue to verbalize the script and say new words…for example, I like pizza! (McClannahan & Krantz, 2005)

18 Scripts and script fading: Research
Krantz and McClannahan (1998) used the scripts “Look” and “Watch me” to teach verbal interactions in three boys with autism ages 4, 4 and 5 Researchers imbedded the textual cues in the student’s picture schedules Results showed improvements in unscripted interactions and verbal elaborations Unscripted interactions generalized to other activities Unscripted interactions continued post treatment In a 1998 study researchers used scripts to teach verbal interactions in three boys with autism. They imbedded the textual cues “look” and “watch me” in the student’s activity picture schedules. The results of the study showed that students improved their unscripted interactions and verbal elaborations. Also unscripted interaction generalized to other activities and continued post treatment (Krantz & McClannahan, 1998)

19 Pivotal Response Training
PRT is a behavioral intervention that focuses on teaching in pivotal areas that may have collateral effects and produce generalization Responsivity to multiple cues Motivation Child choice Natural reinforcers Interspersing maintenance trials with skills acquisition Reinforcement for attempts Self management Self initiation Pivotal response training is a behavioral intervention that focuses on teaching in these pivotal areas. To address the issue of overselectivity, PRT uses multiple cues. For example a conditional cue may be used as a trainer asks a child to get a red T shirt among an array of other different colored shirts and other types of shirts. Another pivotal area is Motivation. To increase motivation allow the student to make choices, vary tasks during the teaching session, intersperse skills acquisition with previously learned skills, use minimally intrusive prompting, provide reinforcement for the child’s attempts and teach turn taking within the context of the activity. Also use natural reinforcers. A natural reinforcer is one that is directly related to the task. When the child emits the desired response he/she will obtain the reward. Another pivotal area is self management. Self management includes using identified reinforcers and teaching the individual to use a self-monitoring device and fading the devise. Students are encouraged to select and administer their reinforcers and participate in setting their own goals. Self initiation is considered a pivotal area due to the potential for wide spread learning opportunities in everyday life. For example teaching a student how to ask a question through prompting and prompt fading, may lead to spontaneous questing asking in the natural environment and thus lead to the start of a conversation. (Koegel, Koegel, Harrower & Carter, 1999)

20 Pivotal Response Training: Research
Pierce and Schreibman (1997) taught peers how to implement pivotal response training strategies and measured the effects on social behavior in two children with autism Training took place in the classroom and during recess Dependent measures included, initiation of play, initiation of conversation, and maintenance of interactions Results showed an increase in initiations from baseline for both participants Both participants maintained skills at post treatment In a 1997 study, researchers taught peers how to implement PRT strategies to teach play and conversation initiation in 2 children with autism. Results showed an increase in all dependent measures and both participants maintained skills at post treatment (Pierce and Schreibman, 1997)

21 Verbal Operants Echoic -Vocal imitation/echoing the sounds and word of others Mand-Requesting wants and needs Motor Imitation-Copy movement Tact- TFFC (Tact by Feature, Function, Class)-Labeling or describing things. Intraverbal-Verbally (or using sign language) responding to questions, participating in conversations, filling in the blank Autoclitic - using phrases like “I think…I really… I played…speaker’s own VB functions as SD or MO for more speaker behavior. Textual- Reading words Copying a text- Copying words Transcription – spoken word evokes written, typed, or finger spelled response

22 Listener Behavior Receptive When the learner “receives information” and follows directions or instructions, discriminates between pictures and objects (i.e. “clap”, pick up that toy, give me the juice) RFFC (Receptive given feature, function or class.) responding when provided a description of an item or thing and not their “name”. RFFC “Can you think of something that has feathers…Name 3 animals, What do I write with…

23 Increasing language: Setting up the environment
We know the child wants to go outside and jump on the trampoline. We obtain a mand for “trampoline” or “jump” Using the Transitive Conditioned Motivating Operation (CMO-T) contrive opportunities to increase manding Socks, shoes, help, outside, door, unlock, open, jump, high, higher, run…

24 CMO-T

25 Mand B.F. Skinner coined the term “Mand” in his book Verbal Behavior published in “The term “mand” has a certain mnemonic value derived from “command, ” “demand,” “countermand,” and so on, and is conveniently brief.” (Skinner, pp. 35–36) “The mand occurs when the form of the verbal response (what the person says) is under the functional control of motivating operations (what a person wants) and specifies its reinforcement (what the person gets) ” (Sundberg, (2008) pp. 6) i.e. I ask for juice, I get juice So if I want something…I will “mand” for it. Make a request. Naturalistic behavioral approaches include the mand-model procedure. “I want it NOW” Read 1st paragraph pg. 35 “Verbal Behavior” deprivation, satiation, aversive stimulus…lights, sound

26 Manding

27

28 Joint Attention Child spontaneously shifts gaze between object and adult for the purpose of sharing; child must make eye contact Adult looks at the child, points and says, “Look up there” Child takes eye gaze to the airplane Child shifts gaze, makes eye contact with adult, and says, “Airplane” Adult Child (Ingersoll & Schreibman, 2006)

29 Tact, receptive command, mand
A child looks at the swing set (MO) Adult says, “what’s over there?” Child says, “swing” (tact/mand) Adult says, “let’s go” (receptive command) Child & adult run toward swing There are 2 kick balls (red and green) in the way. Adult says, “Give me the red ball” (discrimination training) Child picks up and gives adult the red ball. (verbal praise) Child sits on the swing and you wait 5 second (time delay) Child says, “push me!” (mand) You push the child on the swing (reinforcement)

30 Intraverbals The child enjoys a few specific songs. You use these songs to get the child to “fill in the blank”…”SpongeBob SquarePants, SpongeBob SquarePants, SpongeBob_________” or “Mary had a little _____.” Do, re, me, fa, sol, la, ti, ___ “What are some things we can do at the park?” Teaching turn taking while playing a game: The child loves to play the blues clues matching game. We use this game to teach turn taking. Game play teaches many skills…waiting your turn, labeling, asking, rule governed behavior…etc

31 What do you hear?

32 Prompting Verbal Prompt- using words to hint at the correct response
Visual Prompt- using a visual cue or picture Gestural- pointing or looking toward something Modeling- demonstrating the behavior (imitation training) Tactual or Physical- a touch or nudge Physical or Manual Guidance-(hand over hand) Most to Least Prompts- used when targeting a new skill Least to Most Prompts-used when targeting mastered skill

33 Prompting Time Delay- wait before prompting…increase prompt if needed Fading- Transfer of stimulus control from prompt to naturally occurring MO’s & SD’s. (Overall Goal is for learner not to require prompt) Shaping- The differential reinforcement of successive approximations to reach a desired behavior. Prompts are faded systematically and as quickly as possible to avoid prompt dependency. The goal is to fade prompts so that no prompts are needed for the individual to perform the desired behavior.

34 Pointing, counting, prompting,

35 NET Natural Environmental Teaching
In NET, the teacher has a curriculum in mind (what to teach) and takes it into the environment. Following the student's motivations initially, the teacher generates ways to teach the curriculum using those motivations and the materials in the natural environment. In NET, learning does not depend upon the setting or specific materials. It depends on motivation, creativity, and instructional control. Christina Burk

36 Joint Attention; Tact an action

37 Phase 1 NET>DTT Phase 2 NET=DTT Phase 3 DTT>NET Phase 4 Phase 5
Changing Emphasis of DTT & NET as the Child Learns Language (Sundberg & Partington, 1998 pp. 211) Phase 1 NET>DTT Focus on early manding, pairing, compliance, stimulus control Phase 2 NET=DTT Focus on mand, tact, receptive, imitation, echoic, intraverbal Phase 3 DTT>NET Focus on academic activities and specific skill development Phase 4 Focus on learning from group instruction, from peers, and without a highly structured environment; training is more like that of typical kindergarten and 1st grade classrooms Phase 5 Focus on academic skills and structured learning characteristic of later elementary classrooms

38 Assessments Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program Language and Social Skills Assessment Program for Children with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities 170 Milestones Criterion referenced assessment; not norm referenced (standardized) VB-MAPP, Mark L. Sundberg, PhD, 2008

39

40 (Sundberg, 1998, VB-MAPP, Barriers)

41 ABLLS-R The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills
Use of Skinner’s Analysis of Verbal Behavior Helps determine educational priorities ABLLS-R (2006) James W. Partington, PhD, BCBA-D 2010

42 Essential For Living, Patrick McGreevy, Troy Fry, & Colleen Cornwall (2012)
A communication, behavior, and functional skills assessment, curriculum, and teaching manual For children and adults with moderate to severe disabilities

43 The Essential Eight Skills
Making requests – preferred items/activities Waiting Accepting removals – removal of preferred items/activities, making transitions, sharing, taking turns Completing required tasks- 10 consecutive, brief, previously acquired tasks Accepting “no” Following directions – related of health and safety Completing daily living skills - related of health and safety Tolerating situations – related of health and safety (McGreevy, Fry, & Cornwall, 2012)

44 Books Kearney , A.J. (2008). Understanding Applied Behavior Analysis. Philadelphia, PA Lovaas, O.I. (1981). The Me Book. Austin, TX. Pro-Ed Maurice, C. (1996). Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Autism. Austin, TX. Pro-Ed Newman, B. & Reinecke, D. (2007). Behavioral Detectives- A Staff Training Exercise Book in Applied Behavior Analysis. Dove and Orca Sundberg M.L. & Partington, J.W. (1998). Teaching Language to Children with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities. Concord, CA. AVB Press

45 References Berg, W.K., Wacker, D.P., & Steege, M.W. (1995). Best practices in assessment with persons who have severe or profound handicaps. Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., Heward, W.L., (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Cowan, R. J., & Allen, K. D. (2007). Using naturalistic procedures to enhance learning in individuals with autism: A focus on generalized teaching within the school setting. Psychology in the School, (44)7, DeLeon, I.G. & Iwata, B.A. (1996). Evaluation of a multiple stimulus presentation format for assessing reinforcer preferences. JABA, 29, Hart, B. & Risley, T.R. (1975). Incidental teaching of language in the preschool. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, Ingersoll, B. & Schreibman, L. (2006). Teaching reciprocal imitation skills to young children with autism using a natural behavioral approach: Effects on language, pretend play, and joint attention. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36,

46 References: Continued
Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Harrower, J. K., & Carter, C. M. (1999). Pivotal response intervention I: Overview of approach. The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24(3), Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E. (1998). Social interaction skills for children with autism: A script-fading procedures for beginning readers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, McClannahan, L. E., & Krantz, P. (2005). Teaching conversation to children with autism. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House. McGee, G.G., Krantz, P.J., & McClannahan, L.E. (1986). An extension of incidental teaching procedures to reading skills for autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19, Michael, J. (1993). Establishing operations. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, Newman, B., Reeve, K.F., Reeve, S.A., Ryan C.S. (2003). Behaviorspeak, Dove and Orca.

47 References: Continued
Pierce, K., & Schreibman, L. (1997). Multiple peer use of pivotal responses training to increase social behaviors of classmates with autism: Results from trained and untrained peers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, Skinner, B.F. (1957). Verbal Behavior. Prentice Hall, Cambridge, MA. Stokes, T.F. & Baer, D.M., (1977). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, Sowden, H., Perkins, M. & Clegg J. (2011). Child language and therapy, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, Sweeney-Kerwin,E.J., Carbone, V.J., O'Brien. L., Zecchin, G., & Janecky, M.N., (2007). Transferring the control of the mand to the motivating operation in children with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 23, 89- Christina Burk mplates#NET Data Sheets https://www.establishingoperationsinc.com/helpfulinfo.php Data sheets Richard Kubina Precision Teaching

48 Questions? Contact Information Angela Saturno Shelli Harris


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