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The Comprehensive Approach EUCOM NR JOPP Course Mar 2012.

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1 The Comprehensive Approach EUCOM NR JOPP Course Mar 2012

2 Comprehensive Approach “… integrates the cooperative efforts of the departments and agencies of the United States Government, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, multinational partners and private sector entities to achieve unity of effort toward a shared goal.” FM 3-07 Stability Operations Key Elements: l Interdependence l Cooperation l Prioritization l Nesting l Flexibility l Measurements of Progress

3 3 September Today’s National Security Challenges and Development Solutions The Convergence of the Three Ds Decisive Efforts on Today’s Battlefield DiplomacyDefense Development “We can expect that asymmetric warfare will remain the mainstay of the contemporary battlefield for some time. These conflicts will be fundamentally political in nature and require the application of all elements of national power” - Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates, October 10, 2007

4 3 September National Security Challenges Unemployed young men / economic decay in failed states Poorly functioning and disorderly environments / ungoverned territories Lack of access to healthcare and education “…failed or failing states that are unable or unwilling to maintain control over their territory can provide safe havens for terrorist organizations to export terror regionally or around the world.” - Gen. George Casey, Army Chief of Staff, October 9, 2007

5 + = + Core Grievances The conflict equation Key Actors + Windows of Vulnerability + Violent Conflict = Interagency Conflict Assessment Framework O2

6 Comprehensive Approach Expanding Professionalism Comprehensive Approach WHOLE-OF- GOVERNMENT MULTINATIONAL JOINT SERVICE

7 Interagency – “Whole of Government”


9 UNCLASSIFIED Political Diplomatic Socio-Cultural Informational Military Economic Instruments of National Power The Situation Intelligence Financial Law

10 Seven Degrees of Interagency Partnering Adopted from JFCOM/J9 “The Multinational Interagency Group Concept Paper, V.5, 24 May Visibility 2.De-confliction (preventing interference) 3.Coordination (accommodate) 4.Cooperate (actively seek out civilian partners) 5.Collaboration (synchronize) 6.Integration (unified action) 7.Unity of Effort/Unified Action

11 Layers of Interagency Coordination  Federal / Agency (Strategic) –National Security Council and agency to agency –White House and DC “beltway” agency HQs  Regional (Theater / Operational) –Geographic CCDRs, State/AID regional bureaus  Country Level (Nation-State / Tactical) –Country Team; bilateral relations  Field (Tactical / Provincial) –PRTs, CCC, CMOC / JCMOTF  Others? Domestic FBI, DHS, NORTHCOM (Dept of Homeland Security) FEMA regions (Federal Emergency Mgt Agency) State Govt State Fusion Centers FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force Local Govt First Responders

12 UNCLASSIFIED PRES. PRES. Interagency Policy Interagency Policy Committees Committees DeputiesCommittee PrincipalsCommittee National Policy-Making Built on Consensus The Intent is to take the interests of all Agencies, work the details, and come up with a way that is best for the Nation.

13 UNCLASSIFIED  Defines NSC role – “to advise and assist [the President] in integrating all aspects of national security policy as it affects the United States – domestic, foreign, military, intelligence, and economic.”  Defines NSC process – “…along with its subordinate committees, the NSC shall be my principal means for coordinating executive departments and agencies in the development and implementation of national security policy.” Presidential Policy Directive PPD-1

14 UNCLASSIFIED 3 September Presidential Policy Directive - 1 Organizes the National Security Council System for the administration - Membership (statutory/non-statutory, others) - Principals Committee - Secretary-level - Deputies Committee - Deputy Secretary-level - Interagency Policy Committees - Manage the development and implementation of national security policies by multiple agencies of the USG - Day-to-day for IA coordination of policy

15 UNCLASSIFIED 3 September Presidential Study Directive PSD – 1: Results Full integration of NSC and HSC staffs (the new “National Security Staff”) -Ends artificial divide between White House staff who have been dealing with national security and homeland security issues. Maintain HSC as principle venue for IA issues such as terrorism, WMD, natural disasters, and pandemic influenza. New directorates and positions within the National Security Staff to deal with 21 st Century challenges - Cybersecurity, WMD terrorism, transborder security, information sharing, resilience policy. - Retain AP/HSCT as principle advisor. - Create a Global Engagement Directorate

16 President NSA AP/PDNSA DAP/DNSA for Operations and COS AP/HSCT, DNSA DAP/HS Strategic Planning Legislative Affairs Legal Advisor WH Counsel Executive Secretariat DAP/DNSA for International Economics/ Development International Development Democracy & Stabilization Economics Environment & Energy Press. Speech & Comm Global Engagement DAP/DNSA for Strategic Communications Africa AsiaCentralEurope Russia Central Asia Western Hemisphere ML & Human Rights DefenseWMD Coordination IntelCyber Coordination CTTrans Border Security Resilience Middle East South Asia Gulf International Arms Control Threat Reduction Capabilities Policies & Partnerships Info Sharing ResponsePreparedness National Security Staff

17 UNCLASSIFIED 3 September National Security Council President Secretary of Defense NSC Statutory Advisors: Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Director of National Intelligence Non-statutory Members: National Security Advisor (Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs) Chief of Staff to the President Secretary of Homeland Security Assistant to the President for Economic Policy Secretary of the Treasury The Attorney General UN Representative Others are required/invited Vice President Secretary of State Secretary of Energy

18 IPC

19 The Embassy Country Team Joint Forces Staff College National Defense University

20 What does an American Embassy Do? Represents American Interests Overseas Promotes democracy and stability Keeps Washington informed Protects American citizens: births, deaths and visas Sells America: people, products and ideas Who are State People? – Small cadre – Over 250 missions – 26B, 4.5B – High Value Target/High Risk Profession

21 Diplomatic Missions In almost all countries in which it has diplomatic relations, the U.S. maintains an embassy, which usually is located in the host country capital. 1 The Chief of Mission--with the title of Ambassador or Charge d'Affaires--and the Deputy Chief of Mission head the mission's "country team" of U.S. Government personnel. Note 1: Some U.S. Ambassadors are accredited to more than one country simultaneously

22 The Country Team An in-country interagency group, chaired by the Ambassador and consisting of the heads of all US agencies at post, and the heads of major embassy sections Point to remember: Agencies inform Ambassador of their planned activities, who ensures these activities are in harmony with U.S. policy and in sync with other agency efforts

23 Ambassador Deputy Chief of Mission (DCM) Public Diplomacy (PAO) Political Section Economic Section Manage- ment Regional Security (RSO) USAID Defense Cooperation Legal Attache Defense Attache Other USG Agencies Marine Security Detachment State Department (Ambassador Direct Authority) Non-State Department Consular Section General Services Budget and Finance Community Liaison Political Military Sr Defense Official (SDO)

24 President’s representative to Host Nation Government Responsible for overall bilateral relationship Directs US State Department and other U.S. government (executive branch) agency operations Formulates country objectives and strategy Leads in crisis management response Coordinates with Combatant Commanders’ U.S. military role in country Chief of Mission (COM) The Ambassador

25 “while the Ambassador can not direct military activities, he/she may request, approve, and in some cases deny military actions.” (Title X authority) Approximately 2/3 of Ambassadors are career foreign service officers with the remainder political appointees. Approximately 2/3 of Ambassadors are career foreign service officers with the remainder political appointees. A few political appointee Ambassadors may have stronger ties to the President than the Combatant Commander, CJCS or the SECDEF. A few political appointee Ambassadors may have stronger ties to the President than the Combatant Commander, CJCS or the SECDEF.

26 President Obama’s Letter of Instruction to Chiefs of Mission As Chief of Mission, you have full responsibility for the direction, coordination, and supervision of all U.S. Executive Branch employees in [country], regardless of their employment categories or location, except those under command of a U.S. area military commander or on the staff of an international organization. With these exceptions, you are in charge of all Executive Branch activities and operations in your Mission. You will report to me through the Secretary of State… All Executive Branch agencies under your authority, and every element of your Mission, must keep you fully informed at all times of their current and planned activities. You have the right to see all communications to or from Mission elements, however transmitted, except those specifically exempted by law or Executive decision. R Z JUL 09 FM SECSTATE WASHDC TO ALL DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR POSTS UNCLAS STATE

27 Threats are Transnational & Adaptive We need Interagency, International, Private-Public Solutions Crime/urban gangs Narco-terrorism Illicit trafficking Transnational terrorism Logistical support / fundraising for Islamic Radical Groups Forgery/money laundering Mass migration Natural disasters Security Challenges

28 UNCLASSIFIED Transnational Illicit Trafficking US European Command (EUCOM) EUCOM Transnational illicit trafficking includes drugs, weapons proliferation, precursor chemicals, money, people, threat financing and terrorism. This threatens global security. Using a “whole of government” approach we can reduce its impact and disrupt its effect. The US European Command (EUCOM) has established the Joint Interagency Counter Trafficking Center (JICTC) to align resources and facilitate US Interagency foreign support activities

29 Unclassified JFSC / JCWS The Problem Strategic planning for crisis response among military and civilian agencies is disconnected: - structural differences among agencies - competing bureaucratic interests - differences in what “planning” is all about - information sharing practices - time pressures - lack of understanding of planning by other agencies We lack a coherent approach to strategic planning that is multi-agency in nature and extends planning and coordination to multinational and multilateral partners for implementation.

30 Unclassified JIACG Models Counterterrorism vs Full Spectrum The original JIACG concept developed by JFCOM was the full- spectrum model in which JIACG members would coordinate on the full range of issues requiring interagency coordination at the CoCom. With the start of the War on Terrorism, however, all JIACGs were implemented in the counterterrorism (CT) model, with JIACG members focusing on coordination in CT and related efforts. Following National Security Council (NSC) Deputies approval in January 2002, JIACGs were formed at all five regional (at the time) and two functional CoCom headquarters (TRANSCOM and SOCOM), to enhance interagency coordination and unity of effort in the war on terrorism. The Joint Staff coordinated an assessment process that solicited input from combatant commanders and partner agencies on JIACG status and recommendations for the future. While implemented differently at each command, assessment feedback revealed that combatant commands and partner agencies voiced strong support for the JIACG initiative.

31 Unclassified JIACG CT Model Operations The JIACG-CT facilitates a series of shadow operations such as the arrest of Jemaah Islamiya, a Southeast terrorist network with links to al Qaeda, in Singapore and Malaysia. In December 2001, evidence of operational planning against the US and allied targets in Singapore was confiscated from the Afghanistan residence of Mohamed Atef. Rapid interagency coordination with coalition nations led to a series of actions that allowed for the discovery of a videotape in Afghanistan, tracked as actionable intelligence. The responses generated by the targeting process ensured that all regional players had access to the information and the requisite actions and coordination. Prior to interagency coordination efforts, positive action based on such an intelligence find would have been difficult. The December 2001 effort was crisp and nearly frictionless.

32 Joint Forces Staff College full-spectrum JIACG A full-spectrum JIACG functions as an advisory and coordinating directorate, involved in the Regional Combatant Command (RCC) security cooperation plan, deliberate planning, crisis action planning, and transition planning. The JIACG role in this model is broader in scope than those provisionally fielded for the limited purpose of the global war on terrorism and operates across the full spectrum of interagency activities. As a coordinating directorate, the full-spectrum JIACG serves as a coordinating body among the civilian agencies in Washington DC, the country teams, the CoCom’s staff, and other multinational and multilateral bodies within the region. JIACG functions as the combatant commander’s lead proponent for the interagency process and provides the civilian perspective on military operational planning and execution.


34 Unclassified JIACG Composition While each JIACG is unique, most are relatively small staff elements: Comprised of mid-level military and civilian personnel assigned to JIACG for a specified period of time. Comprised of representatives that usually include personnel from various USG Departments and Agencies and composition varies based on command mission and area of responsibility (AOR). Located in various areas within the CoCom headquarters. Some JIACGs are located within the command J-3 (Operations Directorate), J-5 (Plans and Policy Directorate), some report to the Chief of Staff, or may report directly to the Combatant CDR. The JIACG maintain relationships and use technology to enable a coherent assessment of all external civilian planning and implementation. Further, the JIACG coordinates and trains with potential crisis response organizations during peacetime, reducing the time needed to bring a crisis response force to full operational capability. Capable of being augmented with virtual or additional collocated members.

35 JIACG Variations (a moving target) PACOM: JIACG moved around from independent, to being a part of J3, then J5, now J9 [7 non DoD representatives] SOUTHCOM: Started as a virtual and part time enterprise; now a independent Interagency Coordination Directorate called J9 [27 non DoD reps] EUCOM: JIACG-CT to CEIG to J9, focused on partnership and outreach [8 non DoD reps] CENTCOM: J3 Interagency Action Group (IAG) [11 non DoD] AFRICOM: NO JIACG; interagency embedded in staff Harnessing the Interagency for Complex Operations [Original AFRICOM interagency participation only reached 50%, they are now at 75% of reduced goal with 33 non DoD]

36 International Governmental Organizations

37 Multinational Operations : A collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations, typically organized within a coalition or alliance. (JP 3-16) Combined: Between two or more forces or agencies of two or more allies. (JP 3-16) Definitions Alliance: a relationship that results from a formal agreement (e.g., treaty) between two or more nations for broad, long-term objectives that further the common interests of the members. (JP 3-16) Coalition: an ad hoc arrangement between two or more nations for common action. (JP 3-16)

38 International Organizations Established by a treaty Subject to international law IOs are organized in two primary categories – membership and function. United Nations - Open to all Nations OPEC - Open to petroleum producing nations Various Regional Organizations – OAS, AU, NATO, EU, etc. Tsunami Example: The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), as lead, worked closely with the Sri Lanka Red Cross Society, the Indonesian Red Cross Society, and the Myanmar Red Cross Society.

39 United Nations l Founded in 1945 after the Second World War l Originally 51 countries –maintaining international peace and security –developing friendly relations among nations –promoting social progress,and better living standards and human rights. l Powers vested in its founding Charter l Forum for 192 Member States to express their views, through the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and other bodies and committees. 3 September

40 United Nations Charter, Chapter 8: Regional Arrangements Leveraging existing regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with the maintenance of international peace and security …must be consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations Members of the United Nations …shall make every effort to achieve pacific settlement of local disputes through such regional arrangements The Security Council shall … utilize such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority. But no enforcement action shall utilize regional arrangements or agencies without the authorization of the Security Council, with the exception of measures against any enemy state Benefits: ???

41 NATO l Mission is Peace and Security l Consensus Decision-making l Current Operations: –Operation Unified Protector – Libya –ISAF – Afghanistan –KFOR – Kosovo –Operation Ocean Shield - HOA Counter Piracy –Operation Active Endeavour - Med. –NTM-I –Support to AU

42 African Union (AU) Establishment l September 9, 1999 by the Heads of State and Government of the Organisation of African Unity l Sirte Declaration issued establishing the AU l Purpose: Accelerate integration in the continent to enable it play its rightful role in the global economy l Addressing multifaceted social, economic and political problems


44 MANDATE SPECTRUM Factors: UN Presence Requested UN Presence Requested Parties Support UN action Parties Support UN action Parties Control Population Parties Control Population Cease Fire in Effect Cease Fire in Effect Low Risk to Peacekeepers Low Risk to Peacekeepers “Gray Area” Peacekeeping Peace Enforcement LOW RISK HIGH RISK CHAPTER VICHAPTER VII Factors: Absence of consent by all Rogue players Absence of political control Cease Fire absent/tenuous High Risk to Peacekeepers


46 UN Cluster Approach – Construct for HA 46 Predictability and accountability in international responses to HA Clarifying the division of labor among organizations Defines roles and responsibilities within the different response sectors Assigns lead entities to coordinate response efforts for specific mission areas (examples): Agriculture – UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Camp Coordination and Camp Management – (UNHCR) Emergency Shelter – (IFRC) Emergency Telecommunications –(OCHA) Health – World Health Organization (WHO) Logistics – World Food Program (WFP) Protection – UNHCR


48 G:ROG\CJCS AFSC Typical JTF Staff Organization Deputy CJTF J-5 J-4 J-3 J-2 J-1 J-6 Chief of Staff Joint Communications Control Center Joint Planning Group Sub Area Petroleum Office Logistics Readiness Center Facilities Utilization Board Joint Movement Center Joint Operations Center Joint Information Bureau Public Affairs Joint Visitors Bureau Chaplain Comptroller Legal Advisor Surgeon Joint Blood Program Office Patient Movement Requirements Center Joint Reception Center Joint Interrogation Facility Joint Document Exploitation Center Captured Material Exploitation Center Joint Search and Rescue Center Civil Military Operations Center Joint Targeting Coordination Board Joint Intelligence Support Element National Support Team Recommended AS Required CJTF Determines Staff Relationship Joint Mortuary Affairs Office F2C2 Personal Staff JECC (CE ) JIACG MNIG IPC

49 Nongovernmental Organizations (NGO)

50  Usually non-profit organizations with some funding from private sources  Transnational organizations independent of governments or states  Estimated that over 15% of overseas development aid is channeled through NGOs.  Value-based organizations rooted in altruism and volunteerism.  Basic principles of neutrality, impartiality, independence, and integrity.  Collaborate with organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations (UN)

51 Nongovernmental Organizations – Cont’d  Play an important role in both the domestic and international realms.  Social, economic, and health issues.  Provide aid long before the deterioration of security situations.  Already on the ground and provide a source of knowledge regarding local conditions.  Considerable influence in the interagency arena.  Maintain their presence after the departure of military forces

52 World Bank and UN with NGOs The World Bank classifies NGOs in two primary categories – operational and advocacy. Operational NGOs design and implement development related projects. Advocacy NGOs defend or promote a specific cause and seek to influence policies and practices of other organizations. NGOs have collaborated with UN since founding. NGOs have Consultative Status with the UN's Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). NGOs work with UN includes : –Disseminate information, –Raise awareness on important issues, –Provide development education, –Promote joint operational projects, and –Offer technical expertise.

53 Examples l Doctors without Borders l Africare l CARE l American Red Cross l YMCA l Religious groups

54 NGOs – Considerations for Planning/Operations l DOS - lead foreign affairs agency l USAID Role - NGOs must register to receive US Agency for International Development (USAID) funding to assure they meet certain standards l Geographical Unified Commander – Focal point of policy planning for military/NGO especially for movement l JIACG/J9 – Responsible for POL-MIL planning and harmonization for W-O-G approach. l Inter-Action – a US-based consortium of NGOs l NGOs need to remain impartial…but can be a source of info (situational awareness) l The capability, equipment and other resources, and expertise very greatly from one NGO to another

55 55 Issues: Combined Coordination CCC RFA Process CSF-536 OFDA UNOCHA IHC DETAILED LESSONS LEARNED

56 Operation Unified Response- Haiti - Example January 2010

57 USSOUTHCOM Mission Statement USSOUTHCOM conducts Foreign Disaster Relief operations in support of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to support the GoH and MINUSTAH by providing localized security, facilitating the distribution and restoration of basic human services, providing medical support, and conducting critical engineering operations in order to alleviate human suffering and provide the foundation for long term recovery of Haiti

58 Operation UNIFIED RESPONSE UNCLASSIFIED USSOUTHCOM Role in a Comprehensive Haiti HA/DR Campaign Phase III (Restoration) Phase II (Relief) Phase V (Recovery) Phase I (Emergency Response) Phase IV (Stabilization) Distribution Critical Engineering Medical Deploy Port Opening/Ops Partner/Donor Nations GOH MINUSTAH Securi ty Restore to Pre-Earthquake Conditions Redeploy MINUSTAH Peace Enforcement MINUSTAH and Other UN Agencies NGO/PVO, IO USAID / Interagency USSOUTHCOM Enhanced Security Cooperation TSC+ OFDA DART JTF-HAITI HACC UN OCHA UN Clusters Food Health Shelter WFP WHO/PAHO IOM/IFRC Water Logistics UNICEF WFP Long-term Reconstruction Development Mitigate Suffering Meet Basic Needs Immediate Lifesaving SAR DoD-unique capabilities for Ph II Relief efforts no longer required USAID Telecom OCHA/WFP Camp Mgnt UNHCR/IOM Early Recovery UNDP Agriculture FAO Education UNICEF Transition GOH Comprehensive “Whole of Effort” Phases Protection UNHCR Nutrition UNICEF

59 UNCLASSIFIED Commander’s Intent Purpose: –Synchronize DoD support to OFDA,USAID, and UN HA/DR efforts to mitigate human suffering and accelerate recovery in Haiti. Method/Key Tasks: –Conduct security operations to enable distribution of HA/DR –Develop situational understanding to speed delivery of essential relief supplies (water, food, medical) –Establish C2, security and logistics architecture –Enable mobility for USG and other HA/DR delivering elements –Support unity of effort in delivering HA/DR assistance to affected areas –Execute a pro-active Strategic Communication program Endstate : –Immediate human suffering minimized: survivors provided food, water –Critical health situations controlled: survivors have essential medical care –MINUSTAH and GOH authorities capable of maintaining civil order. –GoH, UN and USAID capacity in place to sustain long term recovery Jan 10

60 UNCLASSIFIED International COP KEY ACTIVITY HA Support (Security, Movement Control, Warehousing and MHE support to WFP Joint Reception Staging and onward movement Force Buildup support and services Assessments and EN support (pier reconstruction) Medical Support (USNS Comfort) Airfield and Seaport Operations Strategic air and Sealift support Rotary Wing Support Inter-Agency and UN Logistics Planning Support KEY ACTIVITY HA Support (Security, Movement Control, Warehousing and MHE support to WFP Joint Reception Staging and onward movement Force Buildup support and services Assessments and EN support (pier reconstruction) Medical Support (USNS Comfort) Airfield and Seaport Operations Strategic air and Sealift support Rotary Wing Support Inter-Agency and UN Logistics Planning Support

61 UNCLASSIFIED 61 Request for Assistance Process Clusters: -- Emergency shelter and non-food -- Food aid -- Health -- Logistics -- Nutrition -- Water, sanitation, & hygiene

62 Operation UNIFIED RESPONSE UNCLASSIFIED Haiti Nodal Integration **Caveat: This is an example from a specific case in Haiti. How a HACC will be set up and operate will vary by situation. LEAD US Federal Agency UN Interagency Coord Militar y HCT: Humanitarian country Team

63 Comprehensive Approach Initiatives

64 The Civil-Military Fusion Centre (CFC) and Civil Military Overview (CMO) Concept

65 The Gap in Civilian “Doctrine”: We know how to go to war, but how do we get to peace? l As of 2009, more than 12 U.S. agencies were deploying assets for stabilization and reconstruction (S&R) missions. l U.S. civilian planners and practitioners from these agencies operate without any unifying framework or common set of principles to guide their actions.

66 Guiding Principles for Stabilization and Reconstruction September 2009 Beth Cole, USIP


68 Purpose & Contribution “This is rocket science” l To help fill this gap, the Guiding Principles manual provides a roadmap for sustainable peacebuilding. It presents: The first-ever, comprehensive set of shared principles, built on the lessons of past S&R missions. An unprecedented overarching strategic framework for S&R missions based on a construct of End States, Conditions and Approaches.

69 Built on Experience l These shared principles & end states are distilled from 15 to 20 years of lessons that have emerged in past S&R missions: Based on a comprehensive review of hundreds of official strategic documents from key institutions, including state ministries of defense, foreign affairs and development, along with major intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations. Underwent an extensive vetting process, drawing the informed input of planners and practitioners from these institutions.

70 The manual presents an overarching Strategic Framework for S&R based on: Cross-Cutting Principles apply to all 5 End States 5 End States » Necessary Conditions to achieve each of the 5 End States Major Approaches by which to establish the Necessary Conditions Trade-offs, Gaps and Challenges A Shared Strategic Construct

71 The 5 Golden Rules  Build host nation ownership and capacity  Act only with an understanding of the local context  Prioritize to stabilize  Use a conflict lens  Recognize interdependence

72 A Sample Construct: End State: SAFE AND SECURE ENVIRONMENT Necessary Condition: Cessation of Large-Scale Violence l Approach: Separation of Warring Parties ex: Separate forces to create time and space for the peace process. l Approach: Enduring Ceasefire/Peace Agreement ex: Understand that stopping armed conflict requires political, not military, solutions. l Approach: Management of Spoilers ex: Anticipate obstructionists and understand their motivations. l Approach: Intelligence ex: Local intelligence is a must, but be very aware of sensitivities. Trade-off: Prioritizing short-term stability vs. confronting impunity. Gap/Challenge: Civilian oversight of the security forces.

73 A Sample Construct: End State: RULE OF LAW  Necessary Condition: Just Legal Frameworks l Approach: Legal Framework Assessment – ex: Realize the inherent constraints of new laws if they are not enforced. l Approach: Short-Term Law Reform – ex: Undertake discreet legal reform in the short term if necessary. l Approach: Law Reform Process – ex: Support and engage in a transparent and participatory process. l Approach: Content of New Laws – ex: Consider the relationship between formal and informal justice sectors when determining new content. Trade-off: Peace vs. justice. Gap/Challenge: Engagement with non-state or religious justice systems.

74 A Sample Construct: End State: STABLE GOVERNANCE End State: STABLE GOVERNANCE  Necessary Condition: Political Moderation and Accountability –Approach: National Constituting Processes ex: Focus on the process for writing the constitution as much as what the constitution says. –Approach: Political Governance and Conflict Management ex: Bring the widest range of leaders into the political process and seek to include voices of moderation. –Approach: Systems of Representation ex: Consider the timing and impact of elections on the stability of the host nation. –Approach: Legislative Strengthening ex: Strengthen legislative bodies to counterbalance the executive branch and help bolster representative and accountable governance. Trade-off: Early elections vs. maturation of politics and processes. Gap/Challenge: Subnational governance.

75 A Sample Construct: End State: SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY End State: SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY  Necessary Condition: Macroeconomic Stabilization –Approach: Monetary Stability ex: Build the institutional capacity of an independent and credible monetary authority. –Approach: Fiscal Management ex: Prioritize transparency in contracting and procurement practices to combat corruption. –Approach: Legislative and Regulatory Framework ex: Promote predictability, open markets and fair competition through commercial laws. Trade-off: Economic efficiency vs. political stability. Gap/Challenge: Managing the informal sector without hurting ordinary citizens.

76 A Sample Construct: End State: SOCIAL WELL-BEING End State: SOCIAL WELL-BEING  Necessary Condition: Access to and Delivery of Basic Needs Services –Approach: Appropriate and Quality Assistance ex: Prioritize immediate relief, but do not neglect the impact on long-term development. –Approach: Minimum Standards for Water, Food and Shelter ex: Use shelter construction processes as an opportunity to build host nation capacity and promote livelihood development. –Approach: Minimum Standards for Health Services ex: Treat those with the most immediate health risks while restoring basic health services for the broader population. Trade-off: Rapid return of displaced populations vs. instability. Gap/Challenge: Transition from relief to development activities.

77 Overarching Takeaways  Unity of effort  Bridging stabilization and development  Primacy of politics/Conflict lens

78 Overarching Themes  Reducing drivers, strengthening mitigators  Ownership and capacity  Terminology  Gaps

79 The Comprehensive Approach D D D JIPC Lesson 8 NYARNG JIPC MTT Nov 2011

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