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How much kinetic energy must a deuterium ion (charge = 1.6 x 10 -19 C) have to approach within 10 -14 m of another deuterium ion? [k = 9 x 10 9 N-m 2 /C.

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Presentation on theme: "How much kinetic energy must a deuterium ion (charge = 1.6 x 10 -19 C) have to approach within 10 -14 m of another deuterium ion? [k = 9 x 10 9 N-m 2 /C."— Presentation transcript:

1 How much kinetic energy must a deuterium ion (charge = 1.6 x 10 -19 C) have to approach within 10 -14 m of another deuterium ion? [k = 9 x 10 9 N-m 2 /C 2 and 1 MeV = 1.6 x 10 -13 J] 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.30 KeV 2.50 KeV 3.70 KeV 4.140 KeV

2 How fast is an ion of deuterium moving if it is in a plasma with a temperature of 10 8 K? (k B = 1.38 x 10 -23 J/K and m D = 2 x 1.66 x 10 -27 kg) 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.1.12 x 10 6 m/s 2.0.93 x 10 5 m/s 3.0.46 x 10 5 m/s 4.2.32 x 10 4 m/s

3 One in 6500 water molecules (on average) contains a deuterium atom. If all the deuterium could be extracted from 1 m 3 of water and then reacted, how much energy could be obtained? (Each D-D fusion liberates 3.65 MeV of energy, 1 MeV = 1.6 x 10 -13 J) 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.8.0 x 10 10 J 2.9.6 x 10 10 J 3.4.8 x 10 11 J 4.1.5 x 10 12 J

4 The reason that a thermonuclear fusion reaction cannot be maintained in the oceans of the earth is because? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.the temperature is not high enough. 2.the density is not high enough. 3.there is insufficient deuterium in the ocean. 4.the deuterium in the ocean is not radioactive.

5 The tokamak is used instead of the walls of a container to confine a plasma for nuclear fusion because, if the plasma touched the walls of a container, the nuclear fusion reaction would have to stop because? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.the plasma would become cooler. 2.the plasma would melt the walls. 3.the walls would become radioactive. 4.the walls would not be strong enough to contain the plasma.

6 The formation of a star requires the consideration of the effects of gravity and the energy from nuclear reactions and a star will form only when both the temperature and density are sufficiently high. In the birth of a star, 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.gravity produces the initial required high temperature and density. 2.nuclear reactions produce the initial high temperature. 3.nuclear reactions produce the initial required high density. 4.nuclear reactions produce the initial required high temperature and density.

7 Which of the following is not true of neutrinos? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.spinless 2.chargeless 3.massless 4.lepton

8 Which of the following particle reactions cannot occur? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.p + p¯→ 2g 2.g + p→ n + p o 3.p o + n → K + 4.p + + p → K + + S +

9 Which of the following particle reactions cannot occur? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.p + n → p + p + p¯ 2.n → p + e ¯ + v e ¯ 3.µ¯ → e ¯ + v e ¯ + v µ 4.p¯ → µ¯ + v e

10 The attractive force between protons and neutrons in the nucleus is brought about by the exchange of a virtual pi-meson (mp = 140 MeV/c 2 ). Estimate the longest time a p o can exist in accordance with the uncertainty principle DEDt = Ç. (Ç = 1.054 x 10 -34 J-s, 1 eV = 1.6 x 10 -19 J) 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.3.3 x 10 -18 s 2.2.4 x 10 -21 s 3.4.7 x 10 -24 s 4.6.9 x 10 -27 s

11 The pion (m p = 135 MeV/c 2 ) is thought to be the particle exchanged in the nuclear force. What is the maximum range of this particle if its "time of existence" is as long as can be allowed by the uncertainty principle? (Ç = 1.054 x 10 -34 J-s) 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.1.2 x 10 -15 m 2.1.5 x 10 -15 m 3.2.0 x 10 -15 m 4.7.5 x 10 -15 m

12 If two quarks in an anti-proton have the color anti-red and anti-blue, the third quark must have the color? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.red. 2.blue. 3.anti-purple. 4.anti-green.

13 The spin of all quarks is? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.0. 2.1/2. 3.1. 4.1/3 or 2/3.

14 The charge of some quarks or anti-quarks is? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.0. 2.1/2 (1.6 x 10 -19 )C. 3.1/3 (1.6 x 10 -19 ) C. 4.1 (1.6 x 10 -19 ) C.

15 The strong force which acts between an electron and a quark is caused by the exchange of? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.photons. 2.gluons. 3.gravitons. 4.W +, W -, and Z 0 bosons.

16 Theoretical physicists have had the least success in combining which force with the electromagnetic force? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.strong nuclear force 2.weak nuclear force 3.gravitational force 4.electrical Coulomb force

17 Theoretical physicists have had the greatest success in combining which force with the electromagnetic force? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.strong nuclear force 2.weak nuclear force 3.gravitational force 4.the force caused by the exchange of gluons

18 Which of the following can only occur if the reproduction constant, K, exceeds 1? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.Nuclear meltdown at a nuclear power plant 2.Explosive release of radioactivity and steam from a nuclear power plant 3.The explosion of a nuclear bomb 4.All of the choices require that K exceed 1

19 One result of thermal pollution in water near nuclear power plants in Canada is that? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.roses can be grown near the plant in December. 2.the water contains toxic poisons. 3.the fish in the water are radioactive. 4.all the fish in the water are killed.

20 Which of the following will not influence the rate at which nuclear reactions will occur in a nuclear power plant where the fuel elements are a mixture of U -235 and U -238 ? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.The presence of moderating material 2.The presence of control rods 3.The percentage of U -235 relative to U -238 4.The percentage of the energy that is used to produce electricity

21 In a nuclear fission process involving the use of Pu -239 fuel, if the approximate average binding energy per nucleon in the product fragments is 8.5 MeV while that of the fuel atom is 7.7 MeV, what approximate net energy is released per fission? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.191 MeV 2.239 MeV 3.2030 MeV 4.3850 MeV

22 The rate that an organism absorbs and circulates nutrient materials into its body can be measured by a nuclear technique involving which of the following? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.neutron activation 2.tracing 3.scintillation counting 4.plasma confinement

23 In a fission reaction, a U -235 nucleus captures a neutron. What energy is released if the products are I - 139, Y -95 and two neutrons? (atomic masses: U -235, 235.0439: I -139, 138.9350; Y -95, 94.9134; neutron, 1.00867; and 1 u x c 2 = 931.5 MeV) 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.123 MeV 2.174 MeV 3.199 MeV 4.218 MeV

24 The water surrounding the fuel rods in a nuclear fission reactor serves what purpose(s)? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.coolant 2.Moderator 3.both moderator and coolant 4.none of these

25 The K-ratio in a uranium fuel reactor is defined as the average number of neutrons from each fission event that will cause another event. In a well-functioning reactor, it is desired that the K-ratio have what value? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.zero 2.0.5 3.1.0 4.2.0

26 In a fusion reactor, the high temperature of the order of 10 8 K is required in order that what condition is met? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.melt down the hydrogen fuel 2.strip the hydrogen atoms of their electrons 3.break the protons into their elementary particle sub-parts 4.overcome Coulomb repelling forces between protons

27 What characteristic is preferred in the elements contained in moderator materials when used in a nuclear fission reactor? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.low atomic mass 2.metallic 3.non-metallic 4.high atomic mass

28 In a fission reaction, a U -235 nucleus captures a neutron. This results in the creation of the products I -137 and Y -96 along with how many neutrons? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.1 2.2 3.3 4.5

29 Assume that (i) the energy released per fission event of U -235 is 208 MeV and (ii) 30% of the nuclear energy released in a power plant is ultimately converted to usable electrical energy. Approximately how many fission events will occur in one second in order to provide the 2.0 kW electrical power needs of a typical home? (1 eV = 1.6 x 10 - 19 J) 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.3 x 10 10 fissions per sec 2.2 x 10 14 fissions per sec 3.5 x 10 18 fissions per sec 4.3 x 10 21 fissions per sec

30 Calculate the energy released in the following fusion reaction where reactants are Li -6 and a neutron; products are He -4 and H -3. (atomic masses: Li -6, 6.01512; neutron, 1.00867; He -4, 4.00260; H -3, 3.016031; also 1 u x c 2 = 931.5 MeV) 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.2.9 MeV 2.4.8 MeV 3.8.6 MeV 4.17.2 MeV

31 In a nuclear fusion reactor, the Lawson criterion prescribes the necessary conditions, as related to density and confinement time of the plasma fuel, in order that the process produces a net power output. If the fuel density were doubled, by what factor would the required confinement time change? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.0.25 2.0.50 3.1.4 4.2.0

32 A capture by a target nucleus of uranium-235 is most apt to occur for which type of "bullet" particle? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.low velocity alpha particle 2.low velocity proton 3.high velocity neutron 4.low velocity neutron

33 The moderator material in a nuclear fission reactor is intended to fulfill which of the following purposes? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.absorb neutrons 2.create new neutrons 3.accelerate neutrons 4.decelerate neutrons

34 In a nuclear reactor which uses the fission process, which of the following is the most likely result in the event of a cooling system failure followed by a nuclear accident? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.proliferation of plutonium fuel 2.accumulation of critical mass of fissionable material 3.spread of radioactive material into the environment 4.reduction of ozone in upper atmosphere

35 When comparing product nuclei to reactant nuclei in an exothermal nuclear fusion process, which has the greater binding energy per nucleon? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.greater in product nuclei 2.greater in reactant nuclei 3.equal in both product and reactant nuclei 4.none of these

36 The advantage of a fission reactor when compared to a fusion reactor is which of the following? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.the fuel is cheaper 2.there is less radioactive waste material 3.both cheaper fuel and less radioactive waste material 4.none of these

37 A plasma can be contained in a "magnetic bottle" because it has which of the following properties? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.high temperature 2.liquid in form 3.made of charged particles 4.made of light elements

38 If a self-sustained controlled fusion reaction is to operate, a condition which must be met is that the fuel material be subjected to which of the following condition(s)? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.confined for sufficient time period 2.have sufficiently high density 3.be at sufficiently high temperature 4.all of these

39 The mass of a proton is greater if it is in the nucleus of which of the following elements? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.hydrogen 2.iron 3.uranium 4.krypton

40 It is possible to detect small amounts of arsenic in the hair of a deceased person by a technique involving which of the following? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.Carbon-14 dating 2.nuclear fission 3.neutron activation 4.isotopic separation

41 According to the standard model, a quark and its anti-quark may have the same? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.spin. 2.baryon number. 3.color. 4.all these things may be the same.

42 According to the standard model, there are some cases in which a quark and its anti-quark have the same? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.charge. 2.baryon number. 3.strangeness. 4.all these things are always different.

43 The S +, S 0, and S - all have strangeness of (-1). The collision of an anti-proton and a neutron may produce which of the following particles? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.S - and S 0 2.S + and anti-S 0 3.anti-S + and S 0 4.anti-S - and S 0

44 The S +, S 0, and S - all have strangeness of (-1). The collision of a proton and a neutron to produce a S 0 and an anti-S - cannot occur because it does not conserve? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.strangeness. 2.charge. 3.baryon number. 4.all of the choices.

45 If a photon produces an electron- positron pair and one other particle, the other particle may be a(n)? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.muon. 2.anti-neutrino. 3.neutrino. 4.photon.

46 Experimentally, strange particles can be produced in abundance but they decay relatively slowly. This occurs because strangeness? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.is conserved in both their production and decay. 2.is conserved in their production but not in their decay. 3.is conserved in their decay but not in their production. 4.is not conserved in either their production or their decay.

47 The strangeness of an anti- proton is? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.+1 2.0 3.-1 4.-2

48 If a negative muon decays to form an electron-positron pair and one other particle, the other particle may be a(n)? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.positron. 2.anti-neutrino. 3.neutrino. 4.electron.

49 What quantity is conserved in the following reaction? n → p + e ¯ + v e ¯ 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.baryon number 2.charge 3.lepton number 4.all of the choices

50 What quantity is conserved in the following reaction? anti-n → p + e ¯ + v e ¯ 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.baryon number 2.charge 3.lepton number 4.all of the choices

51 A photon hits an electron and an anti-proton is created. Some uncharged particles must have left the collision. These are? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.neutron and neutrino. 2.neutron and anti- neutrino. 3.photon and neutrino. 4.photon and anti- neutrino.

52 A negative muon decays to form an electron and a neutrino and one additional particle. The other particle must be a(n)? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.positron. 2.anti-neutrino. 3.neutrino. 4.photon.

53 A neutrino and a proton have the same? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.charge. 2.spin. 3.mass. 4.baryon number.

54 Which of these particles has the most mass? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.pion. 2.muon. 3.electron. 4.positron.

55 Calculate the range of the force that might be produced by the virtual exchange of a proton. (m p = 1.67 x 10 -27 kg, c = 3 x 10 8 m/s, and h/2p = 1.05 x 10 -34 J-s) 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.6.7 x 10 -25 m 2.2.0 x 10 -16 m 3.6.0 x 10 -8 m 4.1.5 x 10 -15 m

56 The virtual exchange of photons can produce? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.a repulsive force. 2.an attractive force. 3.either a repulsive or an attractive force. 4.neither a repulsive nor an attractive force.

57 Which of the following particles has not been observed experimentally? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.photon 2.graviton 3.pion 4.Z o boson

58 According to present theories, there is a neutrino for all the following particles except the? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.pion. 2.electron. 3.muon. 4.tau lepton.

59 The size and sign of the charge on an electron is the same as that for? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.a positron. 2.an anti-proton. 3.an anti-neutron. 4.an anti-neutrino.

60 Which particle was the last to be discovered? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.electron 2.neutrino 3.neutron 4.proton

61 Which particle in the free state is least stable? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.electron 2.neutrino 3.neutron 4.proton

62 Which of the following forces is the weakest? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.strong nuclear 2.weak nuclear 3.electromagnetic 4.gravitational

63 Which force can act over distances comparable to the distance between planets? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.only gravitational 2.only electrical 3.only magnetic 4.all of the choices

64 The Dirac theory predicted that a positron would be? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.a negative electron in a negative energy state. 2.a particle with same mass as an electron but with opposite charge and spin. 3.a particle with negative mass. 4.all of the choices.

65 A positron and an electron differ in? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.charge. 2.mass. 3.spin. 4.energy.

66 Calculate the energy (in kWH) given off if 1 kg of plutonium-239 undergoes complete fission. The energy released per fission is 200 MeV. (1 MeV = 1.6 x 10 -13 J) 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.1.17 x 10 5 kWH 2.7.67 x 10 6 kWH 3.11.4 x 10 6 kWH 4.22.3 x 10 6 kWH

67 A proton and antiproton each with total energy 400 GeV collide head-on. What is the total energy (particles + energy) released? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.800 GeV 2.400 GeV 3.zero 4.1600 GeV

68 If a K o meson at rest decays in 0.9 x 10 -10 s, how far will a K o meson moving at 0.96 c travel through a bubble chamber? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.9.3 cm 2.1.1 cm 3.53 cm 4.42 cm

69 Which of the following decays violates conservation of lepton number? 1234567891011121314151617181920 2122232425262728293031323334353637383940 41424344454647484950 1.p + → µ + + v µ.. 2.K + → µ + + v µ. 3.n → p + e ¯ + v e ¯. 4.µ¯ → e ¯ + ve.


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