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New Trends in Mobile Computing: Medical Applications and Localization Solomon Atnafu, PhD Department of Computer Science, Addis Ababa University

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Presentation on theme: "New Trends in Mobile Computing: Medical Applications and Localization Solomon Atnafu, PhD Department of Computer Science, Addis Ababa University"— Presentation transcript:

1 New Trends in Mobile Computing: Medical Applications and Localization Solomon Atnafu, PhD Department of Computer Science, Addis Ababa University The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2 Outline 1.Overview 2.Trends in Mobile Applications 3.Case Mobile Applications – mHealth Applications, – Localization Examples 4.Recommendations The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2CODIST-II

3 1.Overview Mobile computing: – A computing facility with a feature of mobility. A computer is expected to be transported during normal usage. Three aspects of Mobile Computing: – mobile communication, – mobile hardware, and – mobile software. 3CODIST-II The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

4 mobile hardware Development /10 4CODIST-II

5 Wireless Communication Technology Developments 5CODIST-II From the age of telegraph to ad-hoc networks

6 2. Trends in Mobile Applications Mobile phone microscopyMobile phone microscopy (CellScope): - a standard camera-enabled mobile phone microscope ( University of California, Berkeley, 2008 ) University of California, Berkeley - magnification of up to 50X, - estimated resolution of 1.2 µm Dr. Martin Cooper, 1973; first cell phone (Take-Along Telephones) ntor.htm More than 30 years 6CODIST-II The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

7 Mobile Phone Based Applications:  Mobile phones for data collection and delivery of information from remote sites: 7CODIST-II Data from the field compiled and sent by SMS Formatted SMS: TEST Server at central location How the system Works: Report is generated at the server side RapidSMS : availing almost Real-time data to decision makers from any corner of a country via SMS based Application (introduced by UNICEF).

8 Open Data Kit (ODK) By a group at the University of Washington supported by Google; Mobile Internet Access, Web-based, Allows to capture, submit, store and report data as diverse as text, video, audio, images, barcodes, and GPS readings. – Kenya- HIV treatment program in a home-based testing and counseling program, – Brazil- forest tree inventory – Uganda- customers data collection 8CODIST-II

9 Sana is a standard-focused open-source system that supports audio, images, location-based data, text, and in the future, video for telemedicine and other relevant applications. CODIST-II9 sana

10 Efficiency, Communication, Mobility, Coverage Economical advantage What is the Problem? 10CODIST-II

11 3. Case Mobile Applications: Department of Computer Science, Addis Ababa University 1.Epidemic and Communicable Disease Surveillance Data Reporting and Medical Cases Communication System; by Solomon Atnafu, Andualem Workneh, Yonan Getachew. 2.Mobile Health and Demographic-Data Reporting and Communication System: a mHealth system for the Case of the Butajira Rural Health Program; by Solomon Atnafu, Andualem Workneh, Yonan Getachew. 3.The “” Virtual Ethiopic Keyboard for Smart Phones; by Andualem Workneh, Yonan etachew, Solomon Atnafu, 4.Perpetual Ethiopic Calendar, Organizer and Diary System for Android Based Smart Phones; Zenebe Nigussie and Solomon Atnafu, 11CODIST-II The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

12 Epidemic and Communicable Disease Surveillance Data Reporting and Medical Cases Communication System Solomon Atnafu, Andualem Workneh, Yonan Getachew s: Addis Ababa University November 10, 2010 M4D 2010, Kampala, Uganda This project is partially supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) through the UNECA-Finland Cooperation for ICT Development in Africa.

13  The Current Practice Existing Practice Analyzed (Data Collected from the Public Health Emergency Management Center of the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Resource Institute, FMoH). – Data collection formats acquired (Case based Reporting Format, Epidemic Disease Reporting Formats) – Cases are reported using paper based formats; – health extension workers  health center  Woreda health office  Regional health bureau  FMoH. – Currently, about twenty communicable diseases were identified and are under close surveillance, – Some of them need to be reported immediately, others on weekly basis, 13CODIST-II

14 Problems Identified – Depending on the case reporting can be by telephone, – But, there are places where there is no telephone access, – Sending completed reports to the desired site is time taking, – Disease cases may be reported after a long delay, – Delayed reporting of cases is too costly and very sensitive, – Manual data analysis is error prone and time consuming, – Even though the report reaches on time, analysis may take time since it requires data entry of all forms received, – Entering the paper based data in to computer applications (ex. Excel) is also error prone and a time consuming task, – The need for efficient data collection and analysis is high! 14CODIST-II

15 Requirement Analysis Conducted, Actors Identified. 15CODIST-II

16  Implementation Selection of the Development Environment  The client device (the mobile phone device) selected: – Android OS based phone,  Criterion: – Free and Open Source OS, – Future trend of development and application, – Localization capability, – Availability of applications, – Others: Handset layouts, Storage, Connectivity, Messaging, Web browser, Java support, Media support, Development environment, Market, support of manufacturers, etc. 16CODIST-II

17 Development of the Client System The first Screen of the Application The icon of the application Installed on the phone List of functionalities of the application on the mobile phone Case Reporting form with save and send options 17CODIST-II

18  The Server Side system Basic functionalities of the server side system: – The type of message can be Medical case reporting or assistance request, so it identifies the type of message accepted and store appropriately. – A number of messages are expected to be received at a time, Therefore the system should be able to manage this. – Provide a two way communication between the client (mobile phones in the fields) and the server. This includes sending messages, receiving messages and providing communication history where the sent and received messages can be viewed. – Keep track of the contact details of the users who communicate with the system. – Different users with different access levels will use the web application, therefore manage the users of the system and provide security. 18CODIST-II

19 Server Side System Components: User Manager – Logging in to the System – Using the User Manager Creating New User/Contact Editing User/Contact Message Manager – Sending SMS messages – View Sent Messages – Receiving SMS Messages Forms Manager – Viewing & Editing Received Forms Report Generator 19CODIST-II

20 Received Form List Custom Report 20 Some screenshots of the server side Interfaces: CODIST-II

21 Contributions: – Instant delivery of reports, – Rapid communication Between professionals and field workers, – Zero data entry time, – Zero or highly reduced error rate, – Higher transparency and accountability, – Medical assistant (Tele-consultation), build confidence on quality of data, instant delivery of critical messages to field workers, – Highly simplified and fast report generation, – Opens the way for other similar applications. 21CODIST-II

22 The “” Virtual Ethiopic Keyboard for Smart Phones Andualem Workneh, Yonan Getachew, Gedion TAMENE, Solomon Atnafu, s:, November 11, 2010 M4D 2010, Kampala, Uganda This project is partially supported by UNECA Addis Ababa University

23 The Ethiopic Character Set – Amharic is the working language of the federal government of Ethiopia (a country with a population of more than 80 million) and is spoken and written as a first or second language in many parts of the country. – Among the other languages that use Ethiopic script are Tigrigna, Guragegna, Agewigna, and many other languages in the southern region of Ethiopia. – Tigrigna is a language for about nine million people particularly in Tigrai region of Ethiopia and in Eretria. 23CODIST-II Virtual keyboards: For mobile computing devices - The virtual keyboard fits on their small screen size, hence the best choice in many situations.

24 The Challenges –Keyboard design Keyboard Mapping and Input Methods (Many Efforts since the 1980’s) Standard Keyboard Mapping: Typewriter layout, Phonetic layout; 24CODIST-II

25 Advantage: As a result of many efforts Ethiopic is Unicode supported. Ethiopic Unicode (1200 – 137F) 25CODIST-II

26 Standard Key-pad for mobile phones Ethiopic Key-pad for mobile phones Composing Template-based Text The mobile phone input method design By Shiferaw Abebe, Solomon Atnafu and Samuel Kinde, Department of Computer Science, Addis Ababa University 26CODIST-II

27 27 Basic Character selection set component NonBasic Character selection component Figure: Proposed Layout for the virtual Ethiopic keyboard CODIST-II  Virtual Ethiopic Keyboard: - System Layout Design

28  Implementation The System Development Environment Android operating system based smart phones are selected. The basic reasons to choose Android platform are that: – It uses Freetype, a free and open source bitmap and vector font engine, which supports Unicode text layout and glyph rendering. Ethiopic Unicode fonts, such as Microsoft's Nyala and GFZ's Geez Free Zemen, can be used to render text using Freetype on the Android platform. Other platforms such as the Palm OS lack the internationalization support required to fully meet the needs of Ethiopic software development. – It comes with immediate availability to mobile versions of Google search, Google Maps, and Google Products that allow independent developers to create their own array of applications at a much less restrictive cost. 28CODIST-II

29 Virtual Ethiopic Keyboard System (VEK) 29 Figure : VEK on Android Emulator The Main Panel The Top Panel CODIST-II

30 30 Figure: on the Android based HTC G1 smart phone CODIST-II

31 31 Figure: (A)-The panel for Ethiopic and Amharic numerals and Mathematical symbols; (B)- the Virtual QWERTY keyboard. CODIST-II

32  Contribution YES, WE CAN – YES; Technology can and should embrace culture, – a virtual keyboard layout is designed for more than 340 Ethiopic characters, – multi-script text writing is supported, users can switch between our VEK and the Virtual QWERTY keyboard. – Any mobile application can be localized, – Opens the way to include other smart phones, such as Nokia and other mobile operating systems. 32CODIST-II

33 Mobile Health- and Demographic-Data Reporting and Communication System for the Butajira Rural Health Project By Solomon Atnafu, Project Manager Andualem Workneh, Developer Yonan Getachew, Developer CODIST-II33 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia March 2010 This project is partially supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) through the UNECA-Finland Cooperation for ICT Development in Africa.

34 The BRHP aimed to: Assess the fertility, mortality, nuptiality and migration trends and determinants; Analyze public health and health behavioral determinants of mortality; Assess the coverage and utilization of health services in the area in relation to health needs of the people; Build and strengthen research and training capacity; and Develop local capacity in the prevention and control of disease. CODIST-II34

35 What are the problems? – Sending completed reports of the enumerators from Rural Kebeles to to Woreda Health Posts, or to higher health offices and then to a central project office is time taking, – cases that need immediate interventions may be reported after a long delay, while delayed reporting of cases could be too costly and very sensitive, – Even though the report reaches on time, analysis may take time since it requires data entry of all the forms received, – Entering the paper based data in to computer applications is also error prone and time consuming task, – As a result, an obvious question of efficiency is on the air; CODIST-II35 Current Practice: Reporting and Data Collection Manual: data collected on paper based forms, compiling, analysis and reporting

36 The Butajira Rural Health Program- Actor’s interaction and operations CODIST-II36 Health Professional Report HD Data Get Assistanc e View Report Generate Report Remov e User Register User Assistance Give Assistance View Report Enumerators System Administrator Requirement Analysis... USE CASES DIAGRAM  Analysis and Design conducted

37 The client side: – An Android based smart Phone, – With virtual Ethiopic keyboard and mobile virtual QWERTY keyboard, – Data can be collected in both Amharic and English languages, The Server Side: – A server with MySQL database, – Reports can be generated in a required format, – web based interface to allow medical professionals and the system administrator have access to the system, CODIST-II37  Implementation

38 Client Side: Mobile Health- and Demographic-Data Reporting and Communication System - Some screenshots CODIST-II38

39 Server Side System Components: User Manager – Logging in to the System – Using the User Manager Creating New User/Contact Editing User/Contact Message Manager – Sending SMS messages – View Sent Messages – Receiving SMS Messages Forms Manager – Viewing & Editing Received Forms Report Generator CODIST-II39 Screen shot of Birth Form List Screen shot of Birth Report

40 Contributions: –Instant delivery of reports, –Rapid communication Between professionals and field workers, –Almost Zero data entry time, –Zero or highly reduced error rate, –Higher transparency and accountability, –Medical assistant (Tele-consultation), build confidence on quality of data, instant delivery of critical messages to field workers, –Highly simplified and fast report generation, –Enables faster decision making, –Amharic Virtual Ethiopic Keyboard for Android Phones, –Localization of the Android Phone, –Development of the Mobile Health- and Demographic-Data Reporting and Communication System, –Opens the way for other similar applications. CODIST-II40

41 41 ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES MASTER’S PROJECT DEFENCE Perpetual Ethiopic and European Calendar and Organizer System for an Android Based Smart Phones. By: Zenebe Nigussie Advisor: Solomon Atnafu (PhD) June 24, 2010 CODIST-II

42 42 The Ethiopian Calendar system  Ethiopian Calendar system is based on solar system having 365 or 366 (during leap year) days per year.  It has 13 months, 12 of them with 30 days each and one month with 5 or 6 (leap year) days per year.  Religious Holidays Christian Holidays Muslim Holidays  National Holiday (Non-Religious) CODIST-II

43 43  Analysis and Design For the development of the system different requirements are identified. The functional requirements that identified are represented in the use case shown next slide. The architecture of the system that meets the requirements of the system is depicted in the next slide. CODIST-II

44 44  Implementation In order to generate the perpetual Ethiopian with the corresponding Gregorian calendar the algorithm is developed and implemented. To determine the date of the holidays, whose date appears at different date from year to year, algorithm is developed and implemented. Based on the Ethiopian calendar organizer/scheduler and diary system is developed that support Amharic text. CODIST-II

45 Select yearSelect month 45CODIST-II

46 Diary/schedule or plan 46CODIST-II

47 47  Contributions The main contribution of this project is:  Algorithm is generate that generate the Ethiopian calendar  Algorithm is developed that convert Ethiopian date to European date and compute Ethiopian holydays  Architecture of the calendar, organizer and diary system.  Developed perpetual Ethiopic and Gregorian calendar based on the algorithms  Designed and implemented organizer/scheduler and diary system for Android phone that support Ethiopic script CODIST-II

48 4. Recommendations Create awareness (decision makers, medical personnel, practitioners, students, women, in Schools, etc.), Select the appropriate mobile devices for your Application (Cost/Benefit, future trends, etc.) Adopt to Local needs (in African context, localization) Exploit the potential of mobile computing, Adopt applications to reality of being mobile, CODIST-II48 The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

49 49 Thank You Thank You CODIST-II The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia The Second Session of the Committee on Development Information, Science and Technology CODIST-II 2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


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