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Introduction to DFT Alexander Gnusin.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to DFT Alexander Gnusin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to DFT Alexander Gnusin

2 Internal Scan Concept Used to get access to all internal chip registers: Scan inputs Func inputs Func outputs Scan outputs

3 MuxScan Design MuxScan: use one clock for Func and Test mode
TE signal selects mode In test mode reg-to-reg combinatorial logic is bypassed TE D D D TE TE TI TI Q TI CK CK

4 Boundary Scan Principles
Intent: Include board-level test functionality into chip-level devices Solution: Use serial shift register wrapped around the boundary of chip Operation Modes: Serial Shift mode Parallel Capture / Update mode

5 Boundary Scan Architecture
Boundary registers Tap Controller Instruct. Reg Bypass Reg Misc Regs Mode Control SOUT IN OUT TDI SIN TMS TCK TRST TDO ShiftDR ClockDR UpdateDR

6 PCB with IEEE 1149.1 test bus TMS, TCK and TRST connected in parallel
Tap Tap TDI TMS TCK TRST TMS, TCK and TRST connected in parallel TDI , TDO - sequentially Tap Tap TDO

7 Test Bus Signals TCK – Test clock, the master clock during the boundary-scan process TDI – Test Data Input, used to shift in Data or Instructions TDO – Test Data Output, used to shift out Data TMS – Test Mode Selector, used to control FSM in TAP Controller TRST – Optional TAP Controller asynchronous reset

8 Board and Chip Test Modes
External Test Mode – to test board interconnect: Mode Control Mode Control SOUT SOUT IN OUT IN OUT Application Logic Application Logic SIN SIN ShiftDR ClockDR UpdateDR ShiftDR ClockDR UpdateDR

9 Board and Chip Test Modes (Cont)
Sample Test Mode: Sampling Data during normal chip operation: Mode Control Mode Control SOUT SOUT IN OUT IN OUT Application Logic SIN SIN ShiftDR ClockDR UpdateDR ShiftDR ClockDR UpdateDR

10 Board and Chip Test Modes (Cont)
Internal Test Mode: drive chip inputs and capture chip outputs using boundary registers (Functional Isolation) Mode Control Mode Control SOUT SOUT IN OUT IN OUT Application Logic SIN SIN ShiftDR ClockDR UpdateDR ShiftDR ClockDR UpdateDR

11 Tap Controller FSM of Tap Controller is controlled by only one signal, TMS: Test-Logic-Reset 1 1 1 1 Run Test/Idle Select DR-Scan Select IR-Scan 1 Capture-DR Capture-IR Shift-DR Shift-IR 1 1 Exit-DR Exit-IR 1 1 Update-DR Update-IR 1 1

12 Tap Controller States Test-Logic-Reset : Boundary Scan disabled, normal functional mode Run Test/Idle : Internal BIST test runs Capture-DR : Data loaded in parallel into TDR (Test Data Register) selected by current instruction (ClockDR pulse, ShiftDR = 0) Shift-DR : Shift Data in TDR, selected by current instruction (ClockDR pulse, ShiftDR = 1) Update-DR : Update data on the output of TDR, selected by current instruction (UpdateDR pulse) Mode Control SOUT IN OUT SIN ShiftDR ClockDR UpdateDR

13 TAP Controller Instructions
Bypass: to bypass current chip, when targeting the other one Highz: turns all device output off and inserts the bypass register between TDI and TDO. Clamp: the contents of the boundary register control the state of output pins while the bypass register is connected between TDI and TDO Extest : to test circuitry external to the chip (board interconnect) Sample: sample data on IO Pads into the boundary register Intest: To apply a test vector to the chip via boundary-scan path and capture logic response RunBIST: Allows self-test execution on the chip

14 Built-in Self-Test (BIST)
BIST - Capability of a circuit to test itself Test Pattern Generation Types: Exhaustive Testing (for n inputs, 2n tests) Pseudorandom Testing (weighted Test Generation) Pseudoexhaustive Testing (divide by logic cones and test them in parallel, but each one exhaustively) Pseudo Random Pattern Generator (PRPG) – multioutput device that generates pseudorandom output patterns (based on LFSR, Linear Feedback Shift Register) Multiple-Input Signature Register (MISR) – multi-input device that compresses a series of input patterns into unique signature

15 Weighted PRPG PRPG: produces pseudorandom data without replacement (all vectors are unique). Constant-Weight PRPG: probability to get “1” for each output is constant (Example : equal number of “1” and “0” in each word => weight = 0.5) PRPG can adjust weights adding combinatorial logic to the outputs: 0.5 0.25 0.75 Clk Clk

16 Generic LBIST Architecture
First, PRPG issues N pseudorandom tests, where N – maximal internal scan chain length. Second, series of Functional Clock pulses is issued for DC test, the same test clock as for PRPG is used For AC test, functional clock must be provided with real frequency Third, changed data is shifted to MISR and compressed signature is created (using the same N number of test clocks) LBIST Controller PRPG Clk Te Func inputs Func outputs Test (N clocks) Func Test (N clocks) Signature MISR

17 LBIST Design Issues In order to produce constant signature, we need to remove all X – sources from design: Assign constant logic value to all Primary Inputs Isolate memories (or all elements without scan chains) Isolate PLLs LBIST can be initiated and signature can be read out using user-defined instructions of TAP controller Long simulation times to produce signature – use of cycle-based simulator

18 TPI – Test Points Insertion
Two type of test points : Control Points (CP) are Primary Inputs or Scannable Register Outputs to enhance controlability Observation Points (OP) are Primary Outputs or Scannable Register Inputs to enhance observability Problem: G not controlable C1 G C1 C1 G’ G C1 cp1 cp2 Problem: G not observable C1 G C1 C1 G C1 D

19 Scannable Register Insertion
Control Point: Observation Point: To TI of next register only TE OP TE D=0 CP D TI TI CK CK

20 Memory BIST Embedded Memories use non-scannable registers – how to test them? Getting access to all memory pins from PI and PO is expensive… Better solution – add Memory BIST Controller to generate Test Patterns and to observe Test Responses from memory Two ways to add controller : Separate for each memory array (encapsulation) - less wires, more area Shared for the number of memory arrays - less area, but much more wires Memory Test is initiated using TAP Controller Test In RAM Din RAM Dout MBIST Test Out

21 Logic Vision Memory BIST
Logic Vision solution: reducing the number of SRAM test vectors to one: Parallel Test Vectors: Sequential Test Vectors:

22 Pin Sharing More internal scan chains for faster testing – more test Iopads Internal Test Scan Input/Output pads are disconnected on the board The pads number in the chip is limited. Solution: Share Functional and Test pins Mode Control Mode Control SOUT SOUT OUT IN OUT IN SIN SIN ShiftDR ClockDR UpdateDR ShiftDR ClockDR UpdateDR Test Mode Scan Out

23 JTAG for functional debugging
Allscan: “Freeze” the chip and get access to ALL registers data Modify Some registers data and and continue in functional mode Implementation: Serial connection of all Internal Scan chains between TDI and TDO Test Clock is produces from JTAG clock (TCK) Clocks Control – no clock glitches when “freezing” the chip SI Core Logic SO Func Clock JTAG Clock Allscan Result Clock TDI TDO Glitch, can destroy data in registers

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