Presentation on theme: "America At War End of isolationism. Totalitarian- a government that exerts total power over its citizens; citizens have limited rights; the govt. suppresses."— Presentation transcript:
America At War End of isolationism
Totalitarian- a government that exerts total power over its citizens; citizens have limited rights; the govt. suppresses opposition; controlled by a dictator with military support.
Dictators Joseph Stalin “Man of Steel” (USSR)– Communist Party. ◦ Goals: Industrial Growth (hurt agriculture), and Maintain power through purges. Benito Mussolini, “Il Duce” of Italy – Fascist (extreme nationalism). ◦ Supported by Black Shirts. ◦ Goals: Fix economy, unemployment, and fight Communism
Dictators Hideki Tojo: Prime Minister of Japan Goals: More living space, start with Manchuria Francisco Franco (Spain): Leader of the Nationalists in the Civil War ◦ Aided by Germany and Italy who wanted to Test their new weapons and strategies. ◦ Remained Neutral in WW2
Dictators Adolf Hitler “Der Fuhrer” of Germany – Leader of the National Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nazis). ◦ Nazism - extreme nationalism and racism ◦ Goals as set out by Mein Kampf – Unite German speaking people in the new German Empire AKA “3 rd Reich” Racial Purification “Lebensraum” or living space for this new “Master Race:
Problems in Europe Germany improves Economy through military. Hitler’s Plan: ◦ Rearm the Rhineland – Breaking the Treaty of Versailles. France does nothing ◦ Anschluss – Union with Austria a predominately German-Speaking Country League of Nations response - Nothing
Problems in Europe Germany turns to Sudetenland – In Czechoslovakia. ◦ Large group of German Speaking people ◦ Charged the Czechs with abuse of the Germans in the country and invaded. Through Britain and France promised to protect Czechoslovakia they instead signed the Munich Agreement which gave the Sudeten Land to Germany on September 30, ◦ “Last Territorial Demand” ◦ Winston Churchill charged Neville Chamberlain with “Appeasement” or satisfying an aggressor.
Problems in Europe March 15, 1939 – the Rest of Czechoslovakia falls September 1, 1939 using Blitzkrieg (“Lightning War”) Poland is Invaded. ◦ Britain and France declare war – beginning of WW2. ◦ USSR surprised world with Nonaggression Pact.
WW2 Britain and France – Allies ◦ USSR and US will join later. Germany, Italy, and Japan – Axis Germany will conquer a majority of Europe by 1942 (with the exception of Great Britain). ◦ France falls in 1940 and is split into Axis controlled North and Vichy South (puppet Government).
American Response America feared the growing Axis Powers ◦ Germany, Italy, and Japan Neutrality Act ( ) ◦ 1. Outlawed the sale of weapons to nations at war. ◦ Outlawed giving money to nations at war. ◦ Extended the ban to nations in civil war. With the exception of China Cash and Carry Policy 1939 ◦ Allowed warring Nations to buy arms, as long as they paid cash AND transported it themselves. ◦ US = the “Great arsenal of democracy” Lend and Lease Act 1940 ◦ Allowed the US to lend and lease arms to any nation whose safety was vital to US security. ◦ Britain was running out of money; failure of cash and carry policy.
US Goals Atlantic Charter ◦ Pledge between US (FDR) and Britain (Winston Churchill) Collective Security Disarmament Self-Determination Economic Cooperation Freedom of the Seas
US enters the War Pearl Harbor ◦ Hawaiian naval base was attacked by the Japanese on Dec. 7, ◦ 2,403 Americans were killed and 1,178 wounded ◦ 21 ships, including 8 battleships, destroyed ◦ 300 aircrafts destroyed ◦ US declare war the next day. “A day that will live in infamy”
Major Battles of Europe It was decided to finish the war in Europe first. Battle of the Atlantic ◦ Germans sinking American vessels ◦ Adopted the Convoy System after heavy losses. Battle of Stalingrad (1942) ◦ Germans started fighting USSR in 1941 ◦ Stopped fighting by winter – and resumed again in summer ◦ Stalin ordered the city to defended at all costs ◦ The winter of 1942 saved the city ◦ 1,100,000 USSR soldiers died
Major Battles North Africa: Operation Torch 1942 ◦ Led By Dwight D. Eisenhower ◦ 107,000 US troops landed in Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers ◦ Fighting ended in May 1943 Battle for Italy: ◦ Casablanca Conference major leaders decided to take Italy (to win war needed unconditional surrender). Took Sicily in summer of 1943 At the collapse of army the government forced Mussolini to surrender July 25, 1943 King Victor Emmanuel – stripped Mussolini of his power.
D-Day June 6, 1944 – over 3 million troops landed on the beaches of Normandy after crossing the channel. ◦ 7 day battle ◦ Victory for allies ◦ Largest land invasion in history By September France, Belgium, and Luxemburg were liberated.
End Game Battle of Bulge: ◦ Month long battle – Victory for Allies ◦ Last push of the Germans – they broke through weak American Defenses/ ◦ Germans lost 120,000 troops, 600 tanks and assault guns, 1,600 planes USSR liberate first death Camp in July Berlin was stormed on April 25, 1945 by USSR. ◦ April 29, 1945 Hitler marries Eva Braun and the next day they commit suicide. V-E Day “Victory in Europe” – May 8, ◦ Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945 – VP Harry Truman finished the war.
Asian War Douglas MacArthur in charge of allied forced in December ◦ Philippines was invaded and he was ordered off the island, but vowed to return. Spring 1942 – Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle led raids on Japanese cities. Battle of Coral Sea (May 1942): stopped the Japanese from attacking Australia
Major Battles Battle of Midway (June 3, 1942): Japan was trying to capture Midway. ◦ Americans caught the attack and dealt a devastating blow to the Japanese. ◦ Led by Admiral Chester Nimtz ◦ Avenging Pearl Harbor Began “Island Hopping” – taking Japanese controlled islands.
Major Battles Iwo Jima: Sulfur island – perfect launching point for Japan. ◦ 6,000 marines died taking the island ◦ 20,700 Japanese fighting on Island – 200 survived Battle for Okinawa. ◦ April 1945 battle began – lasted until June 21, 1945 7,600 Americans died 110,000 Japanese died.
End of War Manhattan Project: ◦ J. Robert Oppenheimer ◦ Nuclear missles ◦ First Test on July 19, 1945 in New Mexico August 6 – B-29 plane named Enola Gay released the atomic bomb “Little boy” over Hiroshima. Nagasaki was hit by “fat man” 3 days later ◦ Hundreds of thousands killed ◦ Save the lives of American soldiers. ◦ Japan surrendered on September 2 nd.