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CHAPTER 25 ORIGIN OF LIFE ON EARTH Past organisms were very different from those now alive The fossil record shows macroevolutionary changes over large.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 25 ORIGIN OF LIFE ON EARTH Past organisms were very different from those now alive The fossil record shows macroevolutionary changes over large."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 25 ORIGIN OF LIFE ON EARTH Past organisms were very different from those now alive The fossil record shows macroevolutionary changes over large time scales, for example: – The emergence of terrestrial vertebrates – The impact of mass extinctions – The origin of flight in birds © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2 Figure 25.1

3 So where did the first organic molecules come from? Miller-Urey and others demonstrated that organic materials can be produced from inorganic molecules under certain circumstances.

4 MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT Conditions of Early Atmosphere of Earth Before Life Products of Experiment Flask with H, methane, ammonia, H 2 0 (no free oxygen! O 2 ) Spark (to represent lightning) Some amino acids, and cytosine and uracil

5

6 Figure 25.2a Mass of amino acids (mg) Number of amino acids Under Volcanic Conditions (green) the results were even more notable than the original experiment (orange)

7 “Bubble Theory” RNA monomers have been produced spontaneously from simple molecules Small organic molecules polymerize when they are concentrated on hot sand, clay, or rock This can form a type of “bubble” – AKA : Protocell, vesicle, micelle – Provides an enclosed protected area for reactions to take place © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 Protocells Replication and metabolism are key properties of life and may have appeared together Protocells may have been fluid-filled vesicles with a membrane-like structure In water, lipids and other organic molecules can spontaneously form vesicles with a lipid bilayer First cells may have formed on sand or clay in warm- shallow water. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 Which came first? DNA, RNA, or Protein DNA first- Probably not. What does DNA require in order to replicate? RNA first Not only can RNA replicate, but it can sometimes act like an enzyme (ribozyme). Protein first Not only can proteins perform countless functions, but they can also replicate (prions).

10 Self-Replicating RNA and the Dawn of Natural Selection The first genetic material was probably RNA, not DNA RNA molecules called ribozymes have been found to catalyze many different reactions – For example, ribozymes can make complementary copies of short stretches of RNA © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

11 The First Eukaryotes The oldest fossils of eukaryotic cells date back 2.1 billion years Eukaryotic cells have a nuclear envelope, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and a cytoskeleton The endosymbiont theory proposes that mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts and related organelles) were formerly small prokaryotes living within larger host cells An endosymbiont is a cell that lives within a host cell © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

12 Figure Plasma membrane DNA Cytoplasm Ancestral prokaryote Nuclear envelope Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote Mitochondrion Ancestral heterotrophic eukaryote Photosynthetic prokaryote Mitochondrion Plastid Ancestral photosynthetic eukaryote

13 Concept 25.2: The fossil record documents the history of life The fossil record reveals changes in the history of life on Earth Sedimentary rocks are deposited into layers called strata and are the richest source of fossils © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 Dimetrodon Stromatolites Fossilized stromatolite Coccosteus cuspidatus 4.5 cm 0.5 m 2.5 cm Present Rhomaleosaurus victor Tiktaalik Hallucigenia Dickinsonia costata Tappania 1 cm 1 m 100 mya ,500 3, Figure 25.4 Stromatolite fossils are the remains of prokaryotes

15 How Rocks and Fossils Are Dated Sedimentary strata reveal the relative ages of fossils The absolute ages of fossils can be determined by radiometric dating A “parent” isotope decays to a “daughter” isotope at a constant rate Each isotope has a known half-life, the time required for half the parent isotope to decay © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

16 Accumulating “daughter” isotope Fraction of parent isotope remaining Remaining “parent” isotope Time (half-lives) Figure 25.5

17 The geologic record is divided into the Archaean, the Proterozoic, and the Phanerozoic eons The Phanerozoic encompasses multicellular eukaryotic life The Phanerozoic is divided into three eras: the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic Concept 25.3: Key events in life’s history include the origins of single-celled and multicelled organisms and the colonization of land © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

18 Table 25.1 Geologic Time Scale Page 515

19 Cambrian Explosion Concurrent events that may have lead to an overwhelming increase in the number of species – Hox Genes – Predator / Prey Relationships (defined by cephalization- having a head) – Sequestration of carbon dioxide into algae and fossilization (what is happening to that carbon today?) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 Figure Sponges Cnidarians Echinoderms Chordates Brachiopods Annelids Molluscs Arthropods Ediacaran Cambrian PROTEROZOICPALEOZOIC Time (millions of years ago)

21 EXTINCTION Major boundaries between geological divisions correspond to extinction events in the fossil record © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

22 Mass Extinctions The fossil record shows that most species that have ever lived are now extinct Extinction can be caused by changes to a species’ environment At times, the rate of extinction has increased dramatically and caused a mass extinction Mass extinction is the result of disruptive global environmental changes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 Era Period 416 EOS D C 251 P Tr JC Mesozoic PN Cenozoic 0 0 Q ,000 1,100 Total extinction rate (families per million years) : Number of families: Paleozoic 145 Figure 25.15

24 A number of factors might have contributed to these extinctions – Intense volcanism in what is now Siberia – Global warming resulting from the emission of large amounts of CO 2 from the volcanoes – Reduced temperature gradient from equator to poles – Oceanic anoxia (low oxygen) from reduced mixing of ocean waters © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 Is a Sixth Mass Extinction Under Way? Scientists estimate that the current rate of extinction is 100 to 1,000 times the typical background rate Extinction rates tend to increase when global temperatures increase Data suggest that a sixth, human-caused mass extinction is likely to occur unless dramatic action is taken (by 2050) – Did you have any plans for the second half of this century? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

26 Adaptive Radiations Adaptive radiation is the evolution of diversely adapted species from a common ancestor Adaptive radiations may follow – Mass extinctions – The evolution of novel characteristics – The colonization of new regions © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

27 Evolutionary Novelties Most novel biological structures evolve in many stages from previously existing structures Complex eyes have evolved from simple photosensitive cells independently many times Exaptations are structures that evolve in one context but become co-opted for a different function Natural selection can only improve a structure in the context of its current utility © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 Figure (a) Patch of pigmented cells (b) Eyecup Pigmented cells (photoreceptors) Pigmented cells Nerve fibers Epithelium Cornea Lens Retina Optic nerve Optic nerve (c) Pinhole camera-type eye(d) Eye with primitive lens (e) Complex camera lens-type eye Epithelium Fluid-filled cavity Cellular mass (lens) Pigmented layer (retina) A; Limpit (Patella) B: Some mollusks C: Nautilus D: Marine snail E: Squid (Similar to Mammal)

29 Figure Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Anchitherium Miocene Oligocene Millions of years ago Eocene Equus Pliohippus Merychippus Sinohippus Megahippus Hypohippus Archaeohippus Parahippus Miohippus Mesohippus Propalaeotherium Pachynolophus Palaeotherium Haplohippus Epihippus Orohippus Hyracotherium relatives Hyracotherium Key Grazers Browsers Hipparion Neohipparion Nannippus Callippus Hippidion and close relatives Page 531


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