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2/4 & 2/5 ~ Origins of the Cold War

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1 2/4 & 2/5 ~ Origins of the Cold War
Icebreaker ~ Primary Source Analysis: Answer the following sample Paper I Questions on a SEPARATE sheet of paper!!!! Reminder: INTERNAL ASSESSMENT DUE 2/13 & 2/14 2 HARD COPIES, 1 ED TO ME

2 The Origins of the Cold War
According to this cartoon, how did the Cold War start?

3 What is a Cold War??? Term used to describe the tension between the USA & USSR between 1945 & & Term was popularized by US journalist Walter Lippmann in 50 year struggle between two rival states – US vs. USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) and their allies: West vs. East…2 remaining superpowers after WWII The two main protagonist never actually fought each other directly (did drive economic & foreign policy) Contest developed between the two (not always scene as a contest between equals)

4 Cold War Long Term Overview
1941 – 45: Co-operation in WWII ~ USA & USSR work together to defeat Germany 1946 – 53: The First Cold War ~ disagreements between USA & USSR over Germany & E. Europe and the developing nuclear arms race lead to growing tensions 1954 – 68: Fluctuating Relations: Relations between the two superpowers go through a period of antagonism and retreat 1969 – 79: Détente: Period in which the USA & USSR reach several agreements in an effort to avoid a war 1979 – 85: Second Cold War: Relations decline again over developments in the Developing World and nuclear weapons although a stalemate is reached 1985 – 91 Final Stages of the Cold War: A New period of co-operation, ending with the break – up of the Soviet Union

5 Origins of the Cold War Coexistence with other political & social system was impossible Intense Arms Race Ally themselves with regimes and movements that went along with their stated political ideology and beliefs Intense Propaganda ~ West depict USSR as a totalitarian equivalent of Nazi Germany while USSR painted capitalism as warmongering system


7 Rivalry between economic & political rivals but attempts at détente (thaw)
A retreat from the all out arms race Repeated public calls for peace A pursuit of agreed levels of armament (limits set on the arms race) Greater tolerance of the other social order, and more accurate info. Agreements on the Developing World & Europe Attempts by the West to extricate itself from developing confrontations in Developing World Looser emigration controls on the Eastern Bloc

8 The Rival Camps ~ Political & Military Alliances
NATO ~ North Atlantic Treaty Organization – Military alliance organized by the West in response to the perceived threat from the Soviet Union, following its takeover of E. Europe Warsaw Pact – This was the defensive military alliance formed six years after the formation of NATO. Established after W. Germany was allowed to join NATO & rearm in This alarmed the USSR prompting an alliance with its satellite states in E. Europe

9 Iron Curtain Term used to describe the boundary between cap capitalist W. Europe and communist E. Europe. As the Cold War intensified, the frontiers – especially in Germany – became physical & visible to both sides

10 Hot War & Third World ‘Hot War was avoided between US & USSR but both sides were keen to establish alliances Third World ~ First used to describe those countries in the Americas, Asia, & Africa that were economically underdeveloped. First World ~ economically advanced, capitalist states in Europe & US Second World ~ Mainly E. Europe in the communist block

11 Features / Reasons of Cold War
Russian Menace ~ Russian expansionism & Soviet communism, which west struggled to contain US Imperialism ~ US spreading capitalism around the world and willing to use military force to achieve objectives West – West Conflict Theory ~ US used Soviet Union as a smokescreen to place blame for problems and US need to “help” and develop W. Europe, Japan, & Asia to prevent these areas to falling under the ‘evil empire’

12 Features / Reasons of Cold War
Historic conflict between capitalism & communism Superpower Theory US ~ economy grew during WWII and was a global superpower USSR ~ despite advances under Stalin during the 1930’s country was set back by Nazi invasion during WWII - Regional Superpower Arms Race- Nuclear Weapons North – South Divide ~ series of conflicts between US & USSR over control of weaker countries

13 Ideals of Capitalism & Communism
Business privately owned & run by individuals, families or companies Not restricted by state Free competition Wealth created by companies & wealthy individuals will create new jobs & trickle down to benefit the poorer sections of society Communism Classless society Equal chances & opportunity Most important parts of economy should be controlled by state or local councils

14 Cold War & United Nations
Roosevelt & Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter in prior to US entry into WWII & desired a organization to replace the League of Nations = United Nations During Cold War both superpowers used their place in UN Security Council (US, USSR, Britain, China, & France) & their allies in the General Assembly to block decisions they didn’t like, and to protect their allies

15 Truman Doctrine (Containment)
Containment: U.S policy to stop the spread of Communism Truman Doctrine Gave economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey New national security organizations set-up CIA NSC (National Security Council)

16 The Marshall Plan George Marshall (Secretary of State)
Economic assistance to rebuild Economic Recovery Program (ERP) Offered to all nations in Europe Grants and loans Eastern nations EXCEPT Czechoslovakia rejected loansSoviets replaced Czech govt. Viewed as “dollar imperialism”

17 Exit Card What were 3 origins of the Cold War? Define NATO
Define Warsaw Pact What was US policy toward Communism? What was the Marshall Plan? What was the Truman Doctrine?

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