2The Allies Trade Space For Time After Pearl Harbor, the free world was on the edge of disasterJapan running amok in Pacific and Germany might drive England to the wall before US aid could stem the tide.ABC-1 agreementGet Germany 1st and then move to JapanWhy is stopping Hitler a bigger priority?Hitler might be able to crush Soviets and BritishPlan: Devote enough energy to Japan to keep them from getting any more and begin to try to drive them back, but make Europe the first priority.This strategy criticized by public, pacific commanders, China and far-east allies, but was sound.
3Revving the Economic Engine US had massive economic potential, but needed time to get geared up.England in desperate shape.America needed to time to convert factories to all-out war production.Fear that skilled German scientists would come up with dramatic new weapons.Had to feed and arm itself and allies.
4The Shock Of WarNational unity wasn’t a problem—Pearl Harbor had silenced isolationists.West-Coast Japanese110,000 interned in concentration camps. Why?Most interned were well integrated into USLost millions in earnings and property.Upheld by Supreme Court in Korematsu v. U.S.Apologize in 1988 and pay reparations.
5Japanese InternmentWaiting for the Signal From Home
6Building The War Machine War snapped US out of the depression.Full employment.War Production Board.Henry J. Kaiser -Ship-building king (14 days per ship)
7RationingWar production board halted manufacture of non-essential itemsWar industries had first priority in transport and raw materialsNational speed limit and gas rationing.Food RationingMeat and butterFarmers have bumper crops and boom time.
9Economic Bumps War caused Inflation. Why? Full employment and scare consumer goodsWPB response.Ceilings on wage increasesUnions gave no-strike pledge, but hated wage caps and some staged labor stoppages.Mine workers under John L. Lewis were the worst.Roosevelt took a tough stance.1943 Smith-Connally Anti-Strike ActAuthorized federal gov’t to seize and operate tied up industry; strikes were a criminal offense.
10Manpower Shortage 15 Million men served in WWII. 216,000 women served in military in one capacity or anotherSevere manpower shortage at home.Braceros.
11Rosie the Riveter6 Million women took jobs outside the home; over half had never worked before. Rosie the Riveter.Effect on Women’s movementWanted to keep working after the war2/3 left or lost their jobs after war.
12Wartime Migrations Reason for wartime migrations 1.6 million blacks moved from the south.New race problems in northern cities.Blacks resent their treatment.FDR issues executive order prohibiting discrimination in defense industriesFair Employment Practices Commission.
13Internal Migration in the United States During World War II
14Blacks Demand Fairness Blacks adopt the Double V slogan.Victory over Military segregation and dictatorsNAACP membership shoots up and Congress for Racial Equality is established (CORE)Move north continues after the war.
15Economic Effect of WarAmericans at home suffered very little from the war, especially when contrasted to the Brits and Russians.War invigorated the US economy to an unprecedented level.GNP doubled from 1940 to 1945 and pay checks went way up.Disposable income more than doubled, but not much to spend on because all factories devoted to war.The war, even more than the New Deal, leads to the Big Government of the second half of the 20th Century.
16Federal SpendingAll the federal spending finally cures the depression.War cost $330 billion.Where did money come from?Forced US to borrow at unprecedented level and to raise taxes.National debt goes from $49 Billion in 1941 to $259 Billion in 1945.
18THE RISING SUN IN THE PACIFIC Japan attacks islands around themBurma Road – US had been using this to support Jiang Jieshi (China)General Douglas MacArthur – Philippines – forced to surrenderHe fled to AustraliaBataan Death March – prisoner of war camps
19JAPAN’S HIGH TIDE AT MIDWAY Coral SeaJapan going for AustraliaHeavy losses for JapanAircraft carriers – importantMidwayJapan lost 4 carriers and the battleTurning Point!!!!!
20AMERICAN LEAPFROGGING TOWARD TOKYO GuadalcanalJapan loss – 20,000 / US loss - 1,700New GuineaLast buffer protecting AustraliaHeavy Losses for JapanMacArthur starts to return in PhilippinesLeapfrogging
22The Allied Halting Of Hitler Battle of North AtlanticGerman subs were sinking merchant ships faster than they could be built.Code BreakersNorth AfricaErwin Rommel – Desert FoxBernard Montgomery (WINS)9/42 Russia stalls the German steamroller on the outskirts of Stalingrad Turning point in USSR
23The North African Second Front Soviets are begging the allies to open second front. Allies recognize they need to.Stalin’s concerns and fearsAllies concernsAmericans are willing to make a cross-channel invasion in 1942 but Churchill and England’s high command are against this.British argue for an attack at the underbelly of Europe in the Mediterranean.
24Operation Torch Invade North Africa 11/42. Ike in command. Biggest sea-born invasion up to that time.American troops get pummeled by Germans in first battle at Kasserine pass. Patton takes charge.U.S. and Brits begin to drive Germans East.Forced Germans to surrender in Tunisia 5/43
25Casablanca Churchill and Roosevelt Jan. 1943. Agree to invade Sicily. Many on American staff don’t like this idea.Churchill and Roosevelt agree to insist on unconditional surrender of Germany. Why?Soviets would like itForestall charges of future broken treatiesEnemy must now fight until the last bunkerCasablanca
26Sicily Sicily invaded and falls 8/43. Mussolini is deposed soon thereafter and Italy unconditionally surrenders.Germans don’t leave and carry on fight in Italy
27Invasion of Italy9/43 Allies invade toe of Italy and start fighting up the boot.Bogs down; amphibious invasion along the Western coast at Anzio.Very slow going in Italy fighting through the mountains.Allies finally get Rome 2 days before D-Day.Do not finish in Italy until 5 days before German surrender.
28Italy Assessed Benefits: Problems: Does divert some German troops and provides us with air bases from which we can easily bomb Germany.Does open the Mediterranean to Allies greatly restricting Germans.Problems:Delayed the cross-channel invasion by many months, giving Soviets a chance to get further into Eastern Europe before the war ends.Increased Soviet suspicion
30Tehran Conference Late Nov. 1943 Purpose Stalin Roosevelt ChurchillLate Nov. 1943PurposePlan an East and West simultaneous attackFirst meeting of Roosevelt and Stalin
31Eisenhower’s D-day Invasion Of France Eisenhower is given command of D-day landing.June 6, Biggest sea-borne invasion in history.Land near Normandy.Five beaches. Gold, Juno, Sword, Utah, Omaha
32D-Day Very hard fighting; Have to break out before Germans bring in reinforcements and drive invasion back into the ocean.US has Air superiority.US has used paratroopers the night of the D-day invasionHitler dithers on the day of the invasion.August, 1944, invasion of southern France opens a second front.Patton breaks out and races to the German border, but is forced to stall when he can’t get enough supplies.
33Election of 1944Election of 1944 comes at a bad time—the war is reaching its climaxRepublicans nominate Dewey, popular governor of New York. He is only 42 and is very liberal for a Republican.FDR is re-nominated as a matter of course.Roosevelt is in very poor health.VP, Henry Wallace (distrusted), dumped and replaced by Truman. Why?Inconspicuous Senator
34Roosevelt AgainFDR wins by 3 Million votes and in the Electoral College. Reasons?
35Battle of the Bulge December 1944, Germany was wobbling. Dec. 16, 1944 Hitler unleashes a powerful all-out counter-offense in the snow-shrouded and foggy Ardennes forest. Battle of the Bulge.Allies are thrown back in disarray.German target is port of Antwerp. Why?It was the key to the Allied supply operation
37Battle of the BulgeProblem—Germans are very low on fuel and lack air support.101st Airborne is surrounded but refuses to surrender at Bastogne.Constantly shelled, low supplies, no winter clothing.Patton drives north in record time and relieves Bastogne.
38V-E Day March 1945 American Troops reach the Rhine April, 1945 just outside Berlin, US forces meet up with Soviets who have been driving in from the East.Discover the concentration camps.April 12, 1945, Roosevelt dies.Truman, who is totally out of the loop, is hastily sworn in.April 30, 1945, Hitler commits suicide as Berlin is falling around him.May 7, 1945, Germany surrenders unconditionally.
39Japan Dies Hard American subs devastate Japan’s merchant fleet. Massive fire-bomb raids of Japanese cities.March, 1945, destroy ¼ of Tokyo and killed over 80,000. As devastating as later Nuclear attacks.MacArthur recaptures New Guinea.
40Leyte Gulf and Philippine October, 1944, biggest naval battle in history. Leyte Gulf.Japan’s naval power is destroyed.Kamikazes.Jan. 1945, recapture Philippine mainland.Douglas MacArthur returns to Philippines
41Okinawa and Iwo JimaSpring 1945 vicious battles on Okinawa and Iwo Jima.Japanese fight to the last man, inflicting severe casualties.Impact on US strategic thinking?Japan will never unconditionally surrender
42Atomic AwfulnessInvasion of Japan is assumed will cost America thousands of casualties.Japan is sending out peace-feelers, but does not appear willing to surrender unconditionally.Potsdam Conference - July 1945 Allies agree again to unconditional surrender.Japan wants to keep the emperor.Manhattan Project. Very secret.First atomic bomb in New Mexico July 1945.Nagasaki and Hiroshima—Japanese surrender.Hiroshima—70,000 instant deaths and 60,000 more over next months due to radiation.Nagasaki – 80,000 killed or missingSoviets enter the war just after the first bomb and overrun Manchuria and Korea (hence North Korea)Japan surrenders August 10, 1945 if they can keep their emperor Hirohito. US accepts on August 14, 1945
43Why Does Truman Use the Bomb? Avoid US casualties, but clear Japan would likely surrender before Invasion.To show Soviets what we haveTo prevent Soviets from being involved in Pacific longer and grabbing more territory and having a say in rebuilding of Japan.Probably most important