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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  2002 1.1 Operating System Concepts Chapter 1: Introduction What is an Operating System? Mainframe Systems Desktop Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  2002 1.1 Operating System Concepts Chapter 1: Introduction What is an Operating System? Mainframe Systems Desktop Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Chapter 1: Introduction What is an Operating System? Mainframe Systems Desktop Systems Multiprocessor Systems Distributed Systems Clustered System Real -Time Systems Handheld Systems Computing Environments

2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts What is an Operating System? A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. Operating system goals:  Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier.  Make the computer system convenient to use. Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.

3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Computer System Components 1.Hardware – provides basic computing resources (CPU, memory, I/O devices). 2.Operating system – controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various application programs for the various users. 3.Applications programs – define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users (compilers, database systems, video games, business programs). 4.Users (people, machines, other computers).

4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts CPU n Number crunsh n Data shuffle

5 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts CPU n CISC complex instruction set computer n RISC reduced instruction set computer

6 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts CPU n micro-CODE n Beräknings instr. n Kontroll instr.

7 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts CPU n ALU // FPU n Heltal // Flyttal

8 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Register n Data och Adress register n Seg.P. Seqment pointer n PC program counter n IR Instruktions reg. n SP stackpekare n CC Condision Code reg.( flags)

9 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Instruktioner ASEMBLER n Instruktioner n JMP - JUMP to “adr” n Fetch “adr” till “reg: A” n Fetch “adr” till reg: B” n Add “reg:A med Reg:B lägg svaret i “Reg C” n Mov Reg: C till adr:

10 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Språk binär kod- maskin språk n n Assembler kod n n C, Fortran, Pascal, Cobol. n n Smaltalk, JAVA, n n Kod generatorer

11 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts INTEL x86 /CICS Pentium II, III IV

12 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts SPARC / risc en Öppen Konstruktion ISA Instruction Set Architectur ROSS,Weitech, Texas, Cypress Fujitsu Superscalär Sparc 1 (32/16 Sparc 2 (32/16) Micro Sparc (32) Hyper Sparc (32) Super Sparc (32) Ultra Sparc (64)

13 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Superscalär Multipla CPUer i samma skal separata delar utför hämtning/återlämning av inst. o.data utför förarbete ex: beräkna adresser se vidare på:

14 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Hyper - Threading INTEL P4 (2,8Ghz)

15 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts

16 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts

17 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Abstract View of System Components

18 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Operating System Definitions Resource allocator – manages and allocates resources. Control program – controls the execution of user programs and operations of I/O devices. Kernel – the one program running at all times (all else being application programs).

19 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Mainframe Systems Reduce setup time by batching similar jobs Automatic job sequencing – automatically transfers control from one job to another. First rudimentary operating system. Resident monitor  initial control in monitor  control transfers to job  when job completes control transfers pack to monitor

20 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Memory Layout for a Simple Batch System

21 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Multiprogrammed Batch Systems Several jobs are kept in main memory at the same time, and the CPU is multiplexed among them.

22 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts OS Features Needed for Multiprogramming I/O routine supplied by the system. Memory management – the system must allocate the memory to several jobs. CPU scheduling – the system must choose among several jobs ready to run. Allocation of devices.

23 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Time-Sharing Systems–Interactive Computing The CPU is multiplexed among several jobs that are kept in memory and on disk (the CPU is allocated to a job only if the job is in memory). A job swapped in and out of memory to the disk. On-line communication between the user and the system is provided; when the operating system finishes the execution of one command, it seeks the next “control statement” from the user’s keyboard. On-line system must be available for users to access data and code.

24 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Desktop Systems Personal computers – computer system dedicated to a single user. I/O devices – keyboards, mice, display screens, small printers. User convenience and responsiveness. Can adopt technology developed for larger operating system’ often individuals have sole use of computer and do not need advanced CPU utilization of protection features. May run several different types of operating systems (Windows, MacOS, UNIX, Linux)

25 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Parallel Systems Multiprocessor systems with more than on CPU in close communication. Tightly coupled system – processors share memory and a clock; communication usually takes place through the shared memory. Advantages of parallel system:  Increased throughput  Economical  Increased reliability  graceful degradation  fail-soft systems

26 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Parallel Systems (Cont.) Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)  Each processor runs and identical copy of the operating system.  Many processes can run at once without performance deterioration.  Most modern operating systems support SMP Asymmetric multiprocessing  Each processor is assigned a specific task; master processor schedules and allocated work to slave processors.  More common in extremely large systems

27 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Symmetric Multiprocessing Architecture

28 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Multi CPU maskiner Multiprocessing betyder att olika processer kan processas simultant. MAO. en maskin med 8 cpu kan exec. 8 processer som tillhör olika program, eller olika processer i samma program.

29 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Multi CPU maskiner n Asymetriska n Symetriska n Löst-kopplade n Tät-kopplade

30 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Asymetriska n Kärnan kör på CPU 0 n All disk I/O kör på CPU 1 n Allt trafik till från nätverker går på CPU 2

31 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Symetriska n Alla CPUer är värda lika mycket, n processerna kan vandra runt bland CPU-erna.

32 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Loosely Coupled, 4 varje CPU har eget minne. 4 minnes accesser sker över en för varje cpu dedicerad mines bus. 4 I/O sker över en System bus. 4 Detta ger en snabb maskin. 4 “Shared memmory” är svårt att genomföra.

33 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Tightly Coupled n Alla CPU delar minnet/ minnes bus. n Cpuerna kan skick interupt till annan cpu, n de kan även kommunisera via shared memory

34 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Distributed Systems Distribute the computation among several physical processors. Loosely coupled system – each processor has its own local memory; processors communicate with one another through various communications lines, such as high-speed buses or telephone lines. Advantages of distributed systems.  Resources Sharing  Computation speed up – load sharing  Reliability  Communications

35 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Distributed Systems (cont) Requires networking infrastructure. Local area networks (LAN) or Wide area networks (WAN) May be either client-server or peer-to-peer systems.

36 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts General Structure of Client-Server

37 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Clustered Systems Clustering allows two or more systems to share storage. Provides high reliability. Asymmetric clustering: one server runs the application while other servers standby. Symmetric clustering: all N hosts are running the application.

38 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Real-Time Systems Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such as controlling scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, and some display systems. Well-defined fixed-time constraints. Real-Time systems may be either hard or soft real-time.

39 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Real-Time Systems (Cont.) Hard real-time:  Secondary storage limited or absent, data stored in short term memory, or read-only memory (ROM)  Conflicts with time-sharing systems, not supported by general- purpose operating systems. Soft real-time  Limited utility in industrial control of robotics  Useful in applications (multimedia, virtual reality) requiring advanced operating-system features.

40 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Handheld Systems Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) Cellular telephones Issues:  Limited memory  Slow processors  Small display screens.

41 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Migration of Operating-System Concepts and Features

42 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  Operating System Concepts Computing Environments Traditional computing Web-Based Computing Embedded Computing


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