2Overview of Psychology Psychology – scientific study of behavior and cognitive (mental) processes using systematic methodsWhy study psychology?To gain insight into behavior (yours and others)To acquire practical information (how to train your dog, improve your memory, etc.)
3Overview of Psychology Goals of PsychologyDescription – gather information (data) about the behavior being studied and present what is known.Explanation – analyze behavior and determine why it occurs; involves formulating and testing hypotheses and/or theoriesPrediction – using theories and observations of past behaviors to predict future behaviors.Influence – using psychological principles to solve problems/influence behavior in helpful ways.
4Psychology as a Science Scientific Method – used to collect data, formulate and test hypotheses, and develop theories.Basic Science – conducting studies to understand more about a particular phenomenon; researchApplied Science – using scientific findings to solve problems or accomplish immediate goals
5Origins of Psychology Ancient Greeks – believed humans were rational 1500s – scientists developed ideas of observation and experimentation1600s – Rene Descartes believed mind and body influence each other to create a person’s experiences.1800s – natural sciences begin to study complex phenomena by reducing them to simpler parts (cells, elements, atoms)
6Historical Perspectives Structuralism – concerned with the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiencesfounded by Wilhelm Wundtused a systematic procedure to study human behaviorIntrospection – participants report their thoughts and feelings; researcher tries to map out basic structure of thought process.
7Historical Perspectives Functionalism – focused on actions of the conscious mind and the purposes of behaviorFounded by William Jamesbased on the idea that the primary function of cognitive activity is to ensure the survival of the species
8Historical Perspectives Inheritable Traits – how does heredity affect human ability, character, and behavior?Francis Galton – found that greatness runs in families; concluded that genius is a hereditary trait; encouraged “good” marriages to eliminate less capable peopleHe did not consider environment or socioeconomic advantages of prominent peopleGalton’s work laid the foundation for modern personality and intelligence tests and nature vs. nurture debate
9Historical Perspectives Gestalt Psychology – believed that perception was more than the sum of its parts; it involves a “whole pattern”Studied how sensations are assembled into perceptual experiencesForerunner of cognitive approaches to psychology
11Contemporary Approaches Psychoanalytic Psychology – concerned with understanding the unconscious mind.Sigmund Freud – believed primitive urges that conflict with moral and social requirements are responsible for most of human behavior.Free Association – patients say anything that comes to mind; psychologist listens, records, and interprets statements.Case Studies – Freud used extensive notes to develop a theory of patient’s personality.
12Contemporary Approaches Behavioral Psychology – deals with how organisms learn/modify behavior in response to their environment; only concerned with observable behaviorIvan Pavlov – conditioned dogs to associate sound of bell with food salivate.Conditioned Response – used to explore the development of behavior as a result of learning.B.F. Skinner – introduced use of reinforcement to encourage desirable behaviors
13Contemporary Approaches Humanistic Psychology – emphasizes how each person has freedom to direct his/her future and achieve personal growth; reaction to behavioral psych.Cognitive Psychology – focuses on how we process, store, and use information and how these processes influence our behavior; believe behavior is influenced by a variety of mental processes (perceptions, memories, and expectations)
14Contemporary Approaches Sociocultural Psychology – studies the influence of culture, ethnicity, gender and socioeconomic status on behaviorWhat happens when you sneeze?How would you be different if you had been born a different sex/race?How would be different if you had been born extremely rich/poor?
15Psychology as a Profession Psychologist – scientist who studies the mind and behavior of humans/animalsPsychiatry – branch of medicine that deals with mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders.Clinical Psychologists – diagnose and treat people with emotional disturbances (50%)Counseling Psychologists – help people deal with problems of everyday life; many study personality, social psych, or developmental psych.
16Psychology as a Profession Developmental Psychologists – study emotional, cognitive, biological, personal, and social changes that occur as an individual matures.Educational Psychologists – concerned with helping people learn; deal with intelligence, memory, problem solving, and motivation.Community Psychologists – work in gov’t run mental health or social welfare agencies.
17Psychology as a Profession Industrial Psychologists – study and develop methods to boost production, improve working conditions, place applicants in suitable jobs, train employees, etc.Organizational Psychologists – study behavior of people in business/government organizations to make the workplace environment more satisfying.
18Psychology as a Profession Environmental Psychologists – study the effects of the environment (natural disasters, overcrowding, pollution) on individuals, and groups.Psychobiologists - try to explain behaviors in terms of electrical and chemical activities in the nervous system.Forensic Psychologists – develop personality profiles of criminalsHealth Psychologists – study the interaction between physical and psychological health.
19Psychology as a Profession Experimental Psychologists – perform research to understand how humans operate physically and psychologically in carefully controlled laboratory conditionsStudy sensation, perception, learning, motivation, emotion.American Psychological Association – scientific and professional society of psychologists & educators; works to advance psychology as a science and profession.