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The Flat World and Education How America’s Commitment to Equity Will Determine our Future Linda Darling-Hammond Contemporary Issues Involving Diversity.

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Presentation on theme: "The Flat World and Education How America’s Commitment to Equity Will Determine our Future Linda Darling-Hammond Contemporary Issues Involving Diversity."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Flat World and Education How America’s Commitment to Equity Will Determine our Future Linda Darling-Hammond Contemporary Issues Involving Diversity in the Classroom Professor: Dr. Ruby M. Jones Student: Valeria Scherf Montreat College 2010

2 2 Linda Darling-Hammond Linda Darling-Hammond Linda Darling-Hammond is a Professor of Education at Stanford University, where she launched the School Redesign Network, the Stanford Educational Leadership Institute, and the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education. Darling-Hammond is author or editor of more than a dozen books and more than 300 articles on education policy and practice. Her work focuses on school restructuring, teacher education, and educational equity. She was education advisor to Barak Obama’s presidential campaign and was reportedly among candidates for Secretary of Education in the Obama administration. Linda Darling-Hammond is a Professor of Education at Stanford University, where she launched the School Redesign Network, the Stanford Educational Leadership Institute, and the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education. Darling-Hammond is author or editor of more than a dozen books and more than 300 articles on education policy and practice. Her work focuses on school restructuring, teacher education, and educational equity. She was education advisor to Barak Obama’s presidential campaign and was reportedly among candidates for Secretary of Education in the Obama administration.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linda_Darling-Hammond)

3 3 The Flat World, Educational Inequality and America’s Future The Flat World, Educational Inequality and America’s Future The 21 st century is characterized by the availability of abundant information, advanced technology, a rapidly changing society, greater convenience in daily lives, and keener international competition  Education Reform At least 70% of U.S. jobs now require specialized knowledge and skills, as compared to only 5% at the beginning of last century. At least 70% of U.S. jobs now require specialized knowledge and skills, as compared to only 5% at the beginning of last century. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

4 4 Some Facts…  Knowledge is expanding at a breathtaking pace. Five exabytes of new information (500.000 times the volume of the Library of Congress print collection) was generated in 2002, more than three times as much as in 1999. In three years from 1999 to 2002, the amount of new information produced nearly equaled the amount produced in the entire history of the world previously. The amount of new technical information is doubling every 2 years and it is predicted to double every 72 hours by 2010. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

5 5 The Flat World, Educational Inequality and America’s Future The Flat World, Educational Inequality and America’s Future New skills include:  Design, evaluate, and manage one’s own work so that it continually improves  Collaborate strategically with others  Communicate effectively in many forms  Find, analyze, and use information for many purposes  Develop new products and ideas (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

6 6 Finland Finland dismantled the rigid tracking system that had allocated differential access to knowledge to its young people and eliminated the state-mandated testing systems that was used for this purpose, replacing them with highly trained teachers and curriculum and assessments focused on problem solving, creativity, independent learning, and student reflection  propelled achievement to the top of the international rankings and closed an intractable gap. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

7 7 South Korea In one generation, South Korea moved from a nation that educated less than a quarter of its citizens through high school to one that now ranks third in college-educated adults, with most young people now completing postsecondary education. In one generation, South Korea moved from a nation that educated less than a quarter of its citizens through high school to one that now ranks third in college-educated adults, with most young people now completing postsecondary education. (See chart on page 174) (See chart on page 174) (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

8 8 Singapore Starting in the 1970s, Singapore began to transform itself from a collection of swampy fishing villages into an economic powerhouse by building an education system that would ensure every student access to strong teaching, an inquiry curriculum, and cutting-edge technology. Starting in the 1970s, Singapore began to transform itself from a collection of swampy fishing villages into an economic powerhouse by building an education system that would ensure every student access to strong teaching, an inquiry curriculum, and cutting-edge technology. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

9 9 Singapore In Singapore, for example, 80% of families live in public housing, yet its 4 th and 8 th grade students scored first in the world in both mathematics and science on the TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) assessments in 2003. In Singapore, for example, 80% of families live in public housing, yet its 4 th and 8 th grade students scored first in the world in both mathematics and science on the TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) assessments in 2003. With few natural resources, Singapore recognizes that its human capital will determine its future. With few natural resources, Singapore recognizes that its human capital will determine its future. In 1997, it adopted a system-wide reform called “Thinking Schools, Learning Nation.” To empower pupils to take ownership of their learning so they may grow into independent, inquisitive, life-long learners, confident of managing changes in the future. In 1997, it adopted a system-wide reform called “Thinking Schools, Learning Nation.” To empower pupils to take ownership of their learning so they may grow into independent, inquisitive, life-long learners, confident of managing changes in the future. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

10 10 The United States The United States has failed to maintain focused investments in a stable, well-prepared teaching force; has allowed the direction of learning to be whipsawed by unproductive “curriculum wars,” and has spent millions creating innovative schools that, although promising, remain at the margins of a system that has not redesigned to support a 21 st century schooling enterprise. The United States has failed to maintain focused investments in a stable, well-prepared teaching force; has allowed the direction of learning to be whipsawed by unproductive “curriculum wars,” and has spent millions creating innovative schools that, although promising, remain at the margins of a system that has not redesigned to support a 21 st century schooling enterprise. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

11 11 The United States The United States is standing still while more focused nations move rapidly ahead. The United States is standing still while more focused nations move rapidly ahead. In 2006, the United States ranked 21 st of 30 countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (IECD) in science, and 25 th of 30 in mathematics (See graph page 9). In 2006, the United States ranked 21 st of 30 countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (IECD) in science, and 25 th of 30 in mathematics (See graph page 9). The PISA assessments (Program in International Student Assessment) require more advanced analysis and knowledge use than most U.S. tests. The PISA assessments (Program in International Student Assessment) require more advanced analysis and knowledge use than most U.S. tests. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

12 12 The United States Inequality has an enormous influence on U.S. performance (see graphs on p. 11, 58 and 59). Inequality has an enormous influence on U.S. performance (see graphs on p. 11, 58 and 59). In contrast to European and Asian nations that fund schools centrally and equally, the wealthiest school districts in the U.S. spend nearly 10 times more than the poorest  the greatest resources being spent on children from the wealthiest communities and the fewest on the children of the poor, especially in high- minority communities. In contrast to European and Asian nations that fund schools centrally and equally, the wealthiest school districts in the U.S. spend nearly 10 times more than the poorest  the greatest resources being spent on children from the wealthiest communities and the fewest on the children of the poor, especially in high- minority communities. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

13 13 High-achieving nations teach about half as many topics each year as American schools do, treating them more deeply, with greater opportunity to work on a range of solution strategies and to engage students in applying what they are learning. High-achieving nations teach about half as many topics each year as American schools do, treating them more deeply, with greater opportunity to work on a range of solution strategies and to engage students in applying what they are learning. Local, state and sometimes federal policies frequently force schools to change course based on political considerations rather than strong research about effective practice  the U.S. makes less headway on students learning that it could and should, and the students most harmed are the most vulnerable students in urban and poor rural schools. Local, state and sometimes federal policies frequently force schools to change course based on political considerations rather than strong research about effective practice  the U.S. makes less headway on students learning that it could and should, and the students most harmed are the most vulnerable students in urban and poor rural schools. (Darling-Hammond, 2010) The Flat World and Education

14 14 Other countries have been pouring resources into education, both their achievement and graduation rates have been climbing for all their students, including recent immigrants and historical minorities  the current generation of young Americans may be the first to be less well educated than the one before. Other countries have been pouring resources into education, both their achievement and graduation rates have been climbing for all their students, including recent immigrants and historical minorities  the current generation of young Americans may be the first to be less well educated than the one before. Many of the top-scoring nations - including nations that were previously low-achieving – now graduate more than 90% of their students from high school  U.S. graduation rates have been virtually stagnant, and now fall significantly below those of many other countries. Many of the top-scoring nations - including nations that were previously low-achieving – now graduate more than 90% of their students from high school  U.S. graduation rates have been virtually stagnant, and now fall significantly below those of many other countries. (Darling-Hammond, 2010) The Flat World and Education

15 15 The Flat World and Education Although about 60% of U.S. high school graduates go off to college, only about half of these are well enough prepared educationally and well enough supported financially to graduate with a degree  about 35% students in the U.S. gains a college degree, as compared to about 50% in European countries, and over 60% in Korea. Although about 60% of U.S. high school graduates go off to college, only about half of these are well enough prepared educationally and well enough supported financially to graduate with a degree  about 35% students in the U.S. gains a college degree, as compared to about 50% in European countries, and over 60% in Korea. Only about 17% of African American young people between the ages of 25 and 29 –and only 11% of Hispanic youth – had earned a college degree in 2005, as compared to 34% of White youth in the same age bracket. Only about 17% of African American young people between the ages of 25 and 29 –and only 11% of Hispanic youth – had earned a college degree in 2005, as compared to 34% of White youth in the same age bracket. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

16 16 The Flat World and Education American great university system is increasing the training ground for students from other countries who, unlike American students, are fully subsidized by their governments. American great university system is increasing the training ground for students from other countries who, unlike American students, are fully subsidized by their governments. Two Chinese universities – Tsinghua and Beijing – nearly quadrupled the number of students they sent to U.S. doctoral programs over the course of a decade. Of all U.S. doctoral recipients in science and engineering, more than one-third come from other countries. Two Chinese universities – Tsinghua and Beijing – nearly quadrupled the number of students they sent to U.S. doctoral programs over the course of a decade. Of all U.S. doctoral recipients in science and engineering, more than one-third come from other countries. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

17 17 The Flat World and Education Following Brown v. Board of Education (1954), when desegregation and school finance reform efforts were launched, and when the Great Society’s War on Poverty increased investment in urban and poor rural schools, substantial gains were made in equalizing both educational inputs and outcomes. Following Brown v. Board of Education (1954), when desegregation and school finance reform efforts were launched, and when the Great Society’s War on Poverty increased investment in urban and poor rural schools, substantial gains were made in equalizing both educational inputs and outcomes. The investments in the education of students of color that characterized the school desegregation and finance reforms of the 1960s and 1970s have never been re-established in the years since  had the rate of progress achieved in the 1970s and 1980s been continued, the achievement gap would have been fully closed by the beginning of the 21 st century. The investments in the education of students of color that characterized the school desegregation and finance reforms of the 1960s and 1970s have never been re-established in the years since  had the rate of progress achieved in the 1970s and 1980s been continued, the achievement gap would have been fully closed by the beginning of the 21 st century. The U.S. undid much of the progress in the Reagan years. Conservatives introduced a new theory of reform focused on outcomes rather than inputs – i.e., high-stakes testing without investing. The U.S. undid much of the progress in the Reagan years. Conservatives introduced a new theory of reform focused on outcomes rather than inputs – i.e., high-stakes testing without investing. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

18 18 Higher-spending districts also have smaller classes, more specialists, and greater instructional resources, as well as better facilities; more up-to date texts, libraries, computers and equipment; and a wider range of high-quality course offerings. Higher-spending districts also have smaller classes, more specialists, and greater instructional resources, as well as better facilities; more up-to date texts, libraries, computers and equipment; and a wider range of high-quality course offerings. From qualified teachers and class sizes to textbooks, computers, facilities, and curriculum offerings – school serving large number of students of color have significantly fewer resources than schools serving more affluent, white students. Many such schools are so severely overcrowded that they run a multi-track schedule offering a shortened school day and school year, lack basic textbooks and materials, do not offer the courses students would need to be eligible for college, and are staffed by a parade of untrained, inexperienced, and temporary teachers. From qualified teachers and class sizes to textbooks, computers, facilities, and curriculum offerings – school serving large number of students of color have significantly fewer resources than schools serving more affluent, white students. Many such schools are so severely overcrowded that they run a multi-track schedule offering a shortened school day and school year, lack basic textbooks and materials, do not offer the courses students would need to be eligible for college, and are staffed by a parade of untrained, inexperienced, and temporary teachers. (Darling-Hammond, 2010) The Flat World and Education

19 19 The Flat World and Education The result of these trends is that while the United States must fill many of its high-tech jobs with individuals educated overseas, more and more of its own citizens are unemployable and relegated to the welfare or prison systems, representing enormous personal tragedy, as well as a drain on the nation’s economy and social well-being, rather than a contribution to the American national welfare. The result of these trends is that while the United States must fill many of its high-tech jobs with individuals educated overseas, more and more of its own citizens are unemployable and relegated to the welfare or prison systems, representing enormous personal tragedy, as well as a drain on the nation’s economy and social well-being, rather than a contribution to the American national welfare. Nearly one-fourth of high school graduates not in college were not employed at all. Those who do not succeed in school are increasingly becoming part of a growing underclass, cut off from productive engagement in society. Nearly one-fourth of high school graduates not in college were not employed at all. Those who do not succeed in school are increasingly becoming part of a growing underclass, cut off from productive engagement in society. Lack of education is increasingly linked to crime and welfare dependency. Lack of education is increasingly linked to crime and welfare dependency. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

20 20 The Flat World and Education Most inmates are high school dropouts, and more than half of the adult prison population is functionally illiterate. Most inmates are high school dropouts, and more than half of the adult prison population is functionally illiterate. Some states are said to predict the number of prison beds they will need in a decade based on 3 rd grade reading scores. Some states are said to predict the number of prison beds they will need in a decade based on 3 rd grade reading scores. Since the 1980s, national investments have tipped heavily toward incarceration rather education. During the 1980s, incarceration rates doubled, and by 1993, there were more African American citizens on probation, in jail, in prison, or on parole (1,985,000) than were in college (1,412.000). Since the 1980s, national investments have tipped heavily toward incarceration rather education. During the 1980s, incarceration rates doubled, and by 1993, there were more African American citizens on probation, in jail, in prison, or on parole (1,985,000) than were in college (1,412.000). Now the United States imprisons far more people than any country in the world, including China. Representing only 5% of the world’s population, America has 25% of the world’s inmates. Now the United States imprisons far more people than any country in the world, including China. Representing only 5% of the world’s population, America has 25% of the world’s inmates. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

21 21 The Flat World and Education States now spend about $44 billion annually on corrections. As the number of prisoners has quadrupled since 1980, state budgets for corrections grew by over 900%, three times faster than funds for education. These rising costs increasingly cut into resources for books. Between 1987 and 2007, state spending on higher education increased only 21% while spending on corrections grew by 127%. States now spend about $44 billion annually on corrections. As the number of prisoners has quadrupled since 1980, state budgets for corrections grew by over 900%, three times faster than funds for education. These rising costs increasingly cut into resources for books. Between 1987 and 2007, state spending on higher education increased only 21% while spending on corrections grew by 127%. Ironically, many states also find prison costs eating into the funds they want to spend on early childhood education, an investment that has been found to dramatically increase graduation rates and reduce participation in juvenile and adult crime. Ironically, many states also find prison costs eating into the funds they want to spend on early childhood education, an investment that has been found to dramatically increase graduation rates and reduce participation in juvenile and adult crime. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

22 22 What are the Highest-Achieving Nations doing? Access to health care Access to health care A lean curriculum focused on higher order thinking and performance skills A lean curriculum focused on higher order thinking and performance skills Equitable funding of schools Equitable funding of schools Early learning Early learning Massive investments in teacher education and school level support Massive investments in teacher education and school level support Elimination of tracking Elimination of tracking (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

23 23 The Flat World and Education The Flat World and Education High performing school systems around the world focus on:  Getting the right people to become teachers  Developing them into effective instructors  Ensuring that the system is able to deliver high-quality instruction for every child (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

24 24 The Flat World and Education The achievement gap has grown in the United States  The racial achievement gap has widened since 1988.  Graduation rates have declined since 1995, especially for minorities.  Students in states like Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, New Jersey and in affluent districts do as well as those in Singapore, Finland, and other high-achieving nations.  Students in Alabama, California and poor districts achieve on a par with those in Jordan, Nigeria and Swaziland. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

25 25 The Flat World and Education The Flat World and Education The consequences of under education:  Each year of additional education nets a 4% gain in long term economic growth.  A new high school dropout in 2010 had less than a 50% chance of getting a job.  Lack of education is ever more strongly correlated with incarceration.  Prison costs now compete with education expenditures in many states. (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

26 26 The Flat World and Education The Flat World and Education How did the United States get here?  Growing inequality in income and educational resources  Failure to maintain investments in an expert teaching and leadership force  Zigzag policy and popcorn reforms  Teachers earn 25% less than other professions (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

27 27 The Flat World and Education The Flat World and Education  Sanctions without support for development  Merit pay without competitive, equitable salaries and working conditions  Closing schools without creating productive long- term alternatives  Firing teachers without investing in a stable supply of well-prepared teachers (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

28 28 The Flat World and Education The Flat World and Education What should the United States do to improve its education? A) Create a level playing field  Redesign school funding systems to create equal access to stable educational resources B) Ensure well prepared teachers and leaders  Teacher quality matters and should be a major focus of efforts to upgrade the quality of schooling  The United States invests less in teaching than other countries  Preparation is uneven and under-funded  Salaries are unequal and non competitive  Well prepared teachers are unequally distributed  Professional development is “hit & run”  Learning and collaboration is scarce (Darling-Hammond, 2010) (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

29 29 The Flat World and Education The Flat World and Education What should the United States do to improve its education? C) Provide quality pre-school D) Focus on the right kind of learning  Redirect tests to support thoughtful curriculum and teaching Because of the pressure for passing high-stakes’ scores more and more time is spent practicing the test and putting everything in the test format Because of the pressure for passing high-stakes’ scores more and more time is spent practicing the test and putting everything in the test format E) Scale up successful school models to become part of the system and to become available to every child (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

30 30 The Flat World and Education The Flat World and Education Example of a test in the United States: NAEP, 8 th and 12 th Grade Science 1. What two gases make up most of the Earth’s atmosphere? A) Hydrogen and oxygen B) Hydrogen and nitrogen C) Oxygen and carbon dioxide D) Oxygen and nitrogen 2. Is a hamburger an example of stored energy? Explain why or why not (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

31 31 Example of a High School Biology Exam in Victoria, Australia 3. When scientists design drugs against infectious agents, the term “designed drug” is often used. A) Explain what is meant by this term. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Analysis and Application of Knowledge B) Design a drug that will be against the virus. In your answer outline the important aspects you would need to consider. Outline how your drug would prevent continuation of the cycle of reproduction of the virus particle. Use diagrams in your answer. Space for diagram is provided on the next page. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (Darling-Hammond, 2010) The Flat World and Education

32 32 The Flat World and Education The Flat World and Education Design and Scientific Inquiry Before a drug is used on humans, it is usually tested on animals. In this case, the virus under investigation also infects mice. C) Design an experiment, using mice, to test the effectiveness of the drug you have designed. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

33 33 The Flat World and Education The Flat World and Education What did New Jersey do?  Parity funding for high-minority, low-wealth districts  Investment in high quality preschool  Whole school reform based on a model supporting child development and parent involvement  Teacher education and professional development focused on urban teaching in literacy and mathematics  Curriculum and assessment focused on higher order thinking and performance (Darling-Hammond, 2010)

34 34 Reference Darling- Hammond, L. (2010). The flat world and education. How America’s commitment to equity will determine our How America’s commitment to equity will determine our future. New York: Teachers College Press. future. New York: Teachers College Press.


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