Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Fungi. The Characteristics of Fungi Eukaryotes - true nucleus and other organelles present. Non-Photosynthetic organisms Most fungi are multicellular."— Presentation transcript:
The Characteristics of Fungi
Eukaryotes - true nucleus and other organelles present. Non-Photosynthetic organisms Most fungi are multicellular heterotrophs (can’t make own food) Cell wall present, composed of cellulose and/or chitin. Food storage - generally in the form of lipids and glycogen. Fungi can be both microscopic and macroscopic – common macroscopic varieties are molds and mushrooms All fungi require water and oxygen to grow & reproduce. Fungi grow in almost every habitat imaginable, as long as there is some type of organic matter present and the environment is not too extreme.
*Saprophytes or saprobes - fungi feed on dead tissues or organic waste (decomposers) *Fungi can sometimes attack the tissues of living plants and animals and cause disease. *Fungi disease is a major concern for humans because fungi attack not only us but also our food sources, making fungi competitors with humans for nutrients *Mold spores can cause mild to serious allergies. Spores can be airborne, be inhaled, and trigger an allergic reaction
Fungi as Saprobes and Decomposers
Molds Rapidly growth Asexual spores Many human importances *Food spoilage *Food products *Antibiotics, etc. Fig 31.21 Antibiotic activity Noble Rot - Botrytis
Fungi as Parasites & Pathogens
Fungi are Spore-ific!!! Spores - asexual (product of mitosis) or sexual (product of meiosis) in origin. Purpose of Spores *Allows the fungus to move to new food source. *Resistant stage - allows fungus to survive periods of adversity. *Means of introducing new genetic combinations into a population
Reproduce by spores Spores are reproductive cells *Sexual (meiotic in origin) *Asexual (mitotic in origin) Amanita fruiting body Pilobolus sporangia Penicillium hyphae with conidia
Sac fungi diversity
Bioluminescence in Mycena
Yeasts Single celled fungi Adapted to liquids *Plant saps *Water films *Moist animal tissues Candida Saccharomyces
HUMAN-FUNGUS INTERACTIONS Beneficial Effects of Fungi *Decomposition - nutrient and carbon recycling. *Biosynthetic factories. Can be used to produce drugs, antibiotics, alcohol, acids, food (e.g., fermented products, mushrooms). *Model organisms for biochemical and genetic studies. Harmful Effects of Fungi *Destruction of food, lumber, paper, and cloth. *Animal and human diseases, including allergies. *Toxins produced by poisonous mushrooms and within food (e.g., grain, cheese, etc.). *Plant diseases.
Fungal Infections Athlete's Foot Athlete's foot, also called tinea pedis, is a fungal infection of the foot. It causes peeling, redness, itching, burning, and sometimes blisters and sores. Athlete's foot is a very common infection. The fungus grows best in a warm, moist environment such as shoes, socks, swimming pools, locker rooms, and the floors of public showers. It is most common in the summer and in warm, humid climates. It occurs more often in people who wear tight shoes and who use community baths and pools.
What Causes Athlete’s Foot? Athlete's foot is caused by a microscopic fungus that lives on dead tissue of the hair, toenails, and outer skin layers. What Are the Symptoms of Athlete's Foot? Signs and symptoms of athlete's foot vary from person to person. However, common symptoms include: Peeling, cracking, and scaling of the feet Redness, blisters, or softening and breaking down of the skin Itching, burning, or both
How Is Athlete's Foot Treated? Athlete's foot is treated with topical antifungal medication (a drug placed directly on the skin) in most cases. Severe cases may require oral drugs (those taken by mouth). The feet must be kept clean and dry since the fungus thrives in moist environments. How Is Athlete's Foot Prevented? Steps to prevent athlete's foot include wearing shower sandals in public showering areas, wearing shoes that allow the feet to breathe, and daily washing of the feet with soap and water. Drying the feet thoroughly and using a quality foot powder can also help prevent athlete's foot
Ringworm What is ringworm of the skin?ringwormskin Ringworm of the skin is an infection caused by a fungus.fungus Jock itch is a form of ringworm that causes an itchy rash on the skin of your groin area. It is much more common in men than in women. Jock itch may be caused by the spread of athlete's foot fungus to the groin. Jock itchrash Jock itchathlete's foot What causes ringworm? Ringworm is not caused by a worm. It is caused by a fungus. Grow best in warm, moist areas, such as locker rooms and swimming pools, and in skin folds.swimming Ringworm is contagious!. It spreads when you have skin-to-skin contact with a person or animal that has it. It can also spread when you share things like towels, clothing, or sports gear. You can also get ringworm by touching an infected dog or cat, although this form of ringworm is not common
What are the symptoms? Ringworm of the skin usually causes a very itchy rash. It often makes a pattern in the shape of a ring, but not always. Sometimes it is just a red, itchy rash.ring Jock itch is a rash in the skin folds of the groin. It may also spread to the inner thighs or buttocks.itch Ringworm of the hand looks like athlete's foot. The skin on the palm of the hand gets thick, dry, and scaly. And skin between the fingers may be moist and have open sores.athlete's foot
How is ringworm of the skin diagnosed? If you have a ring-shaped rash, you very likely have ringworm. Dr. will probably look at a scraping from the rash under a microscope to check for the ringworm fungus. How is it treated? Topical creams
To prevent ringworm: Don't share clothing, sports gear, towels, or sheets. Wash your clothes in hot water with special anti-fungus soap. Wear slippers or sandals in locker rooms and public bathing areas. Shower and shampoo well after any sport that includes skin-to-skin contact. Wear loose-fitting cotton clothing. Change your socks and underwear Keep your skin clean and dry. If you have athlete's foot, put your socks on before your underwear so that fungi do not spread from your feet to your groinfoot