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Moving Toward Complete Alignment In Social Studies

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Presentation on theme: "Moving Toward Complete Alignment In Social Studies"— Presentation transcript:

1 Moving Toward Complete Alignment In Social Studies
Understanding How To Apply Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy For Learning and Assessing A Taxonomy Teaching

2 Today’s Presentation Will Assist Participants With:
Understanding how to use the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy (RBT) to align classroom instruction and assessment to the new social studies essential standards.

3 Pre-Assessment

4 Pre-Assessment Question # 1
How should you use the table below in instruction and assessment? Answer The RBT Taxonomy Table should be used to help determine the learning experiences and assessment tasks for which you ask students to participate.

5 Pre-Assessment False Answer EXAMPLE PASSAGE
And after the arrival of Europeans in the New World, Native Americans struggled intently to preserve the essentials of their diverse cultures while adapting to radically changing conditions. The spread of disease also strained religious belief systems, persuading many that their ancestral gods had forsaken them and leading some Indians to embrace Christianity. While the ravages of disease caused some people to adopt a more nomadic existence, other Indians responded by establishing new tribes out of the surviving remnants of earlier societies. Native Americans not only adapted to diverse and demanding environments, they also reshaped the natural environments to meet their needs. Europeans had a devastating impact on the environment, clearing huge tracts of forested lands and inadvertently introducing a vast variety of Old World weeds. The introduction of cattle, goats, horses, sheep, and swine also transformed the ecology, as grazing animals ate up many native plants. The horse, extinct in the Americas for 10,000 years, produced a cultural revolution. It radically reshaped the lives of the Plains Indians, transforming hunting, transportation, and warfare. Initially, Indians did not know what to make of these huge animals. The introduction of the horse encouraged groups like the Cheyenne, who had been farmers, to become hunters. Horses made hunters much more adept at killing wild game. Pre-Assessment Question #2 True or False? The assessment below is aligned to the clarifying objective. CO: Summarize the change in cultures, everyday life, and status of indigenous American Indian groups in North Carolina before and after European exploration. Assessment: The lives of American Indians were changed when Europeans came to the New World . Tell how farming, hunting and everyday life within their tribes changed for the American Indians. Answer False An Appropriate Assessment: Have the student read a passage that describes changes in American Indians’ culture and lives. Read the passage above and write a few sentences describing how life changed for American Indians as a result of European exploration of the New World.

6 NC’s New Lens: Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy (RBT)
Say: Currently, there is a disconnect between the cognitive rigor of the content standards that students are to be learning, the cognitive rigor of the actual work students are doing and the cognitive rigor of the summative assessment. The revised taxonomy is a two dimensional system that identifies both the structure of knowledge and the cognitive processes students are expected to demonstrate. With RBT, teachers and administrators are assured of an increased alignment of instruction, assessment and state standards. Say: Our first session today is an effort to clarify the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy and provide you with enough guidance that you may continue this journey of exploring the taxonomy once this training is over. Our work today, or over the next few days, is not enough to make you an expert in the use of Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. We will begin that journey today but each of you must chart your own course and set your own pace to mastery.

7 What is the purpose of a taxonomy?
Making sure that everyone is on the same page is the point.

8 Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy (RBT)
Provides a common language for all curriculum areas by indicating what a learning or assessment task was intended to measure by cognitive type by type of knowledge Provides a framework that may “help teachers plan and deliver appropriate instruction, design valid assessment tasks and strategies, and ensure that instruction and assessment are aligned with the objectives.” (p.xxii)

9 The Alignment Question
How does one ensure that objectives, instruction and assessment are consistent with one another? ?

10 The Structure of Curriculum
Students Essential Standards/Clarifying Objectives Classroom Assessments Learning Experiences/Performance Tasks Materials and Equipment Image of students with globe. Image no. 3Q Photo by  Will & Deni McIntyre

11 The Importance of Alignment
“Alignment is an even stronger predictor of student achievement on standardized tests than are socioeconomic status, gender, race, and teacher effect.” ~ Elmore & Rothman, 1999: Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick,1989

12 Content Alignment “Does the teacher teach and assess the factual, conceptual, and procedural knowledge outlined in the curriculum?”

13 Cognitive Type Alignment
“Do the students get to work and think at the level the curriculum prescribes?”

14 Context Alignment “Are the parameters of the assessment reasonably similar to the parameters of the instruction?”

15 Learning occurs best when there is a purposeful process that creates complete alignment.

16 Let’s Perform A Quick Activity
Directions: By yourself, classify the 13 original colonies according to which were New England, Middle or Southern (2 minutes ) Thirteen Original Colonies Virginia Rhode Island Georgia New York Delaware New Jersey North Carolina South Carolina Pennsylvania Massachusetts New Hampshire Maryland Connecticut New England Colonies Middle Colonies Southern

17 Now, Let’s Assess Directions:
Using the map place the 13 colonies with their correct alphabet and indicate numerically the chronological order each was established from to 13. (2 minutes )

18 How Did You Do?

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20 The Cognitive Dimension Is The Alignment For Standards & Assessment
The RBT Verbs Say: A major difference between the 2006and 2010 standards is the presence of only one verb. Only 25 verbs will be used in the revised Essential Standards. This will greatly enhance the likeliness of alignment. 6 verbs serve as Categories and the remaining 19 serve as cognitive processes that may be classified in the 6 categories. Other verbs will be incorporated into the standards at the instruction level during differentiation.

21 Remember Retrieving relevant knowledge from long term memory… (verbatim, unchanged by student)
Cognitive Processes: 1.1 Recognizing (identifying) 1.2 Recalling (retrieving) Remembering is essential for meaningful learning and problem- solving. It is used in more complex tasks.

22 Recall Or Recognition? Question
What is the effect if the teacher does not clarify the differences between RECOGNIZE and RECALL when preparing an assessment? Answer The assessment will be misaligned with the objective and possibly instruction.

23 Rote learning requires students to remember what they learned.
The line of demarcation among the cognitive categories is REMEMBER Remember rote learning All others meaningful learning (transfer) Rote learning requires students to remember what they learned. Transfer requires students to remember but also make sense of what they have learned.

24 Understand Understand
Constructing meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written and graphic communication Understand Cognitive Processes: 2.1 Interpreting 2.2 Exemplifying 2.3 Classifying 2.4 Summarizing 2.5 Inferring 2.6 Comparing 2.7 Explaining Understand cognitive processes are the most represented in state standards More cognitive processes are associated with this category than any other category The learner grasps the meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned.

25 An Assessment Example Summarize Cognitive Processes
Clarifying Objective Example Assessment Summarize CE.PFL.2.2 Summarize various types of fraudulent solicitation and business practices. Read the following article: or Watch the following clip:   Summarize in three sentences or less the fraudulent business practice described in either the article or video clip.

26 An Assessment Example Explain Cognitive Processes Clarifying Objective
WH.6.1 Explain how new ideas and theories of the universe altered political thought and affected economic and social conditions. Construct a cause and effect graphic organizer explaining how a scientific or enlightened thinker’s ideas impacted political, economic, or social conditions in 17TH & 18TH century America. VOLTAIRE Believed in the principle of religious freedom. He envisioned a secular, tolerant society. He saw formal religion as irrational and superstitious. He believed in justice and reason above feelings and despised democracy as the rule of the mob. His affirmation of civil rights and the principle of religious freedom would find expression in the U.S. Constitution and its guarantees of freedoms of speech, the press, and religion. His ideas helped secure separation of state from church in America.

27 Analyze Cognitive Processes:
Break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts relate to one another and to an overall purpose. Cognitive Processes: 4.1 Differentiating [e.g. the relevant from the irrelevant parts.] 4.2 Organizing [Identifying the elements of a communication or situation and recognizing how they fit together in a coherent structure. The student builds systematic and coherent connections among pieces of presented information.] 4.3 Attributing [the underlying purpose or perspective – reading between the lines.]

28 Examples of Assessing Analyze
Cognitive Processes Of Analyze Example Learning Objective Assessment Differentiating Organizing Attributing The student will distinguish the major and minor points in research reports. Circle the main points in an archeological report on an ancient Mayan city. Write an outline that shows which facts, in the book Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization, support and which facts do not support the conclusion that the decline of the civilization was caused by influences of the Europeans. The student will structure a historical description into evidence for and against a particular explanation. The student will determine the point of view of the author of an essay on a controversial topic. Determine if a report on the decline of the Mayan rainforest was written from a pro-environmental or pro-economic point of view.

29 Make judgments based on criteria and standards.
Evaluate Make judgments based on criteria and standards. Cognitive Processes: 5.1 Checking [testing for internal consistencies or fallacies in an operation or product – check as you go along] 5.2 Critiquing [judging a product or operation based on externally imposed criteria and standards.] Evaluate

30 Examples of Assessing Evaluate
Cognitive Processes Of Evaluate Example Learning Objective Assessment Checking Critiquing Watch a television advertisement for a political candidate and point out any logical flaws in the persuasive message. The student will check for internal inconsistencies in persuasive messages. Evaluate key points in a political candidate’s speech in terms of the potential impact each point may have on citizens. The student will judge the merits of a product, effect or occurrence based on specified or agreed upon criteria and standards.

31 When you combine the verbs (cognitive processes) with the nouns (knowledge) you end up with a two-dimensional table. Factual knowledge- terms, details, symbols, informational sources (vocabulary) Conceptual knowledge- classification, generalizations, theories, models (Taxonomy of a bug/tree) Procedural knowledge- employing a method or technique, using skills, procedures to solve a problem (Scientific method) Metacognitive knowledge- strategic, self-knowledge , critiquing, cognitive demands of specific tasks, (experimentation)

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33 Analyze colonization in terms of the desire for access to resources and markets as well as the consequences on indigenous cultures, population, and environment .

34 Construct maps, charts, and graphs to explain data about geographic phenomena.

35 Choose to work with either the middle or high school objective.
Your Turn To Practice Directions: Working with a group or a partner, determine where the clarifying objective you are working with lies on the Taxonomy Table. With your group or partner come up with a classroom assessment for the clarifying objective. (5 minutes ) Choose to work with either the middle or high school objective. Middle School 6.H.2.1 Explain how invasions, conquests, and migrations affected various civilizations, societies and regions (e.g. Mongol invasion, The Crusades, the Peopling of the Americas and Alexander the Great). High School WH.5.2 Explain the causes and effects of exploration and expansion.

36 Some Conclusions About RBT
To solve shared problems in instruction and assessment, we need a shared system of classification (an agreed upon taxonomy). That shared taxonomy provides a common way to ensure that instruction and assessment are aligned with the objectives and a common language to talk about them. Without a shared taxonomy, learning, instruction and assessment have the potential to be all over the place. RBT is our shared taxonomy!

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