# Wake Turbulence Intended Learning Objective

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Wake Turbulence Intended Learning Objective
The student will be able to explain to the instructor the effects that wake turbulence can have on an aircraft as well as the way in which it is formed and how to avoid a potential accident. Jon Zaffer 12/9/2009

Pre Test What type of aircraft produce wake turbulence?
a. Propeller aircraft b. Jet aircraft c. Only large jets d. All aircraft

Pre Test An aircraft produces the most wake turbulence when it is______. a. Moving fast b. In a clean configuration c. In a dirty configuration d. In a clean and slow configuration

Pre Test Wake turbulence travels in what direction with no wind?
a. Up and in b. Down and out c. Counter Clockwise d. Clockwise

Many fatal accidents attributed to Wake Turbulence Pilot’s responsibility to avoid an incident One of ATC’s main functions is to separate aircraft due to Wake Turbulence Top Gun flat spin sequence

What is Wake Turbulence?
Counter Rotating vortices behind the wing tips The pressure differential triggers the roll up of the airflow causing the swirl Vortex strength is determined by the weight speed and shape of the aircraft All aircraft produce wake turbulence, which consists of wake vortices formed any time an aerofoil is producing lift

Don’t Believe Wake Turbulence Exists?
Watch This!

When Should a Pilot be Looking Out for Wake Turbulence?
Most wake turbulence encounters will occur in or around an airport environment, most likely on final approach Remember- Wake turbulence is the strongest when aircraft are HEAVY, CLEAN, and SLOW! Some Tips For Final Approach: *Do not get too close to the lead aircraft. *Do not get below the lead aircraft's flight path. *Be particularly wary when light wind conditions exist

How to Avoid Wake Turbulence
After takeoff, avoid headings which cross below and behind the path of larger aircraft. Stay at or above the larger aircraft's final approach flight path. Note its touchdown point and land beyond it. Note wind for possible vortex drift on to the landing vector. Stay at or above the larger aircraft's final approach flight path. Note its touchdown point and land beyond a point abeam it.

In Conclusion Pilots need to understand the importance of Wake Turbulence Can contribute to flight delays due to ATC required separation Just because you have not yet encountered Wake Turbulence does not mean it wont happen to you!

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