Presentation on theme: "In Ender’s Game. 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 widely known as the Father of Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one."— Presentation transcript:
29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 widely known as the Father of Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers
Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness He postulated that the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa Contrary to pre-existing Cartesian philosophy, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception
Locke's political theory was founded on social contract theory. Social contract theory, nearly as old as philosophy itself, is the view that persons’ moral and/or political obligations are dependent upon a contract or agreement among them to form the society in which they live.
Locke believed that human nature is characterized by reason and tolerance. Locke believed that human nature allowed men to be selfish. In a natural state all people were equal and independent, and everyone had a natural right to defend his “Life, health, Liberty, or Possessions". This became the basis for the phrase in the American Declaration of Independence: "Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
Locke also advocated governmental separation of powers and believed that revolution is not only a right but an obligation in some circumstances. These ideas would come to have profound influence on the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States
384–322 BC Was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators.
The Athenian politician Aeschines (c.390- c.315) tried to make the best of their defeat by Macedonia. In his view, the best way to protect Athenian independence was peaceful coexistence with Macedonia. A war could not be won. With the benefit of hindsight, we know that this was the correct reading of the signs of the times, but not everyone agreed. Aeschines' main opponent was the orator Demosthenes, who proposed resistance to Macedonian imperialism. Demosthenes’ policy was for straightforward confrontation.
Demosthenes became one of 10 official Athenian orators. As official orator he warned against Philip, when the Macedonian king and father of Alexander the Great was beginning his conquest of Greece. Demosthenes' three orations against Philip, known as the Philippics, were so bitter that today a severe speech denouncing someone is called a Philippic.
To make his living, Demosthenes became a professional litigant, both as a "logographer", writing speeches for use in private legal suits, and advocate speaking on another's behalf. He seems to have been able to manage any kind of case, adapting his skills to almost any client, including wealthy and powerful men. It is not unlikely that he became a teacher of rhetoric and that he brought pupils into court with him.
He had a large role in many political campaigns, writing speeches and arguing for different sides Demosthenes dealt in policies and ideas, and war was not his business, but he advocated against cooperation and negotiation with Macedonia