14Conservation Biology What is it? What are the concepts that guide it? Large habitats are more effective at safeguarding species that several habitat fragmentsLarge areas of habitat typically have the potential to support greater species richness.It is better if areas of habitat for a given species are located close together rather than far apart.
15Conservation BiologyAreas that are inaccessible to humans are better than human accessible areas.It is more effective and more economical to preserve intact ecosystems in which many species live than to work on preserving individual species one at a time.Higher priority is given to preserving areas that are more biologically diverse than others. (Remember the Hot Spots?)
16Three Techniques of Conservation Biology Ecosystem ApproachIn situ conservationProtecting habitatsRestoring damaged or destroyed habitatsPreserve balanced populations of species in their native habitatEstablish legally protected wilderness areas and wildlife reservesEliminate or reduce the populations of nonative species
17Three Techniques of Conservation Biology Species ApproachIdentify endangered species and give them legal protectionPreserve and manage crucial habitatsEx situ conservationZoos, aquarai, botanical gardens, seed banksReintroducing endangered species to nature
18Three Techniques of Conservation Biology Wildlife Management ApproachManages game species by:Using laws to regulate huntingEstablishing harvest quotasDeveloping population management plansUsing international treaties to protect migrating game species such as waterfowl
19Wildlife RefugesTeddy Roosevelt established Pelican Island off Florida’s Atlantic coast as the 1st wildlife refuge to protect the brown pelican (1903)Now have 508 refuges, 85% are in Alaska¾ are wetlands for protection of migratory waterfowl
20BioinformaticsOrganizing and storing useful biological information about wild speciesProvides computer tools to find, visualize, analyze, and communicate biological information
21Laws, Acts, and Organizations CITIESLacey ActEndangered Species ActWild Bird Conservation ActMagnuson Fisheries Management and Conservation Act
22International Protection CITIES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (1975)Signed by 136 countries and list about 700 species that cannot be commercially traded as live specimens or wildlife products because they are endangered or threatened.
23United States Lacey Act (1900) Endangered Species Act (1973) Prohibits transporting live or dead wild animals or their parts across state borders without a federal permitEndangered Species Act (1973)Endangered or threatened species cannot be hunted, killed, collected or injured in the United States
24Rules of the Endangered Species Act National Marine Fisheries Services (NMFS) identifies and list endangered and threatened ocean species.U.S. fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) identifies and list all other endangered and threatened species.Adding or removing a species from the list must be based on biology, not economic or political reasons
25Rules of the Endangered Species Act Forbids federal agencies to carry out, fund, or authorize projects that would either jeopardize, destroy or modify the critical habitat.Fines and jail sentences can be imposed on private lands to ensure protection of the habitats of endangered species.
26Rules of the Endangered Species Act There are over 1100 species on the list – 60% are plants and 40 % are animals. Hawaii leads this list (298+). Each year about 85 species are added to the listRequires all commercial shipments of wildlife and wildlife products enter or leave the country through one of nine designated ports.
27Wild Bird Conservation Act Imposed a moratorium on importing rare bird species
28Magnuson Fisheries Management and Conservation Act Gives the federal government authority to manage fisheries in the zone between 3 and 200 miles off the U.S. shore. There is no limit on the number of U.S. fishing vessels, but quotas can be imposed on the quantity of fish taken.
29Other Solutions Debt-For-Nature Swap Page 670 (old book Biosphere reserves Page 633 (old book)Reintroduction of endangered species