Conservation Biology What is it? What are the concepts that guide it? Large habitats are more effective at safeguarding species that several habitat fragments Large areas of habitat typically have the potential to support greater species richness. It is better if areas of habitat for a given species are located close together rather than far apart.
Conservation Biology Areas that are inaccessible to humans are better than human accessible areas. It is more effective and more economical to preserve intact ecosystems in which many species live than to work on preserving individual species one at a time. Higher priority is given to preserving areas that are more biologically diverse than others. (Remember the Hot Spots?)
Three Techniques of Conservation Biology Ecosystem Approach In situ conservation Protecting habitats Restoring damaged or destroyed habitats Preserve balanced populations of species in their native habitat Establish legally protected wilderness areas and wildlife reserves Eliminate or reduce the populations of nonative species
Three Techniques of Conservation Biology Species Approach Identify endangered species and give them legal protection Preserve and manage crucial habitats Ex situ conservation Zoos, aquarai, botanical gardens, seed banks Reintroducing endangered species to nature
Three Techniques of Conservation Biology Wildlife Management Approach Manages game species by: Using laws to regulate hunting Establishing harvest quotas Developing population management plans Using international treaties to protect migrating game species such as waterfowl
Wildlife Refuges Teddy Roosevelt established Pelican Island off Florida’s Atlantic coast as the 1 st wildlife refuge to protect the brown pelican (1903) Now have 508 refuges, 85% are in Alaska ¾ are wetlands for protection of migratory waterfowl
Bioinformatics Organizing and storing useful biological information about wild species Provides computer tools to find, visualize, analyze, and communicate biological information
Laws, Acts, and Organizations CITIES Lacey Act Endangered Species Act Wild Bird Conservation Act Magnuson Fisheries Management and Conservation Act
International Protection CITIES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (1975) Signed by 136 countries and list about 700 species that cannot be commercially traded as live specimens or wildlife products because they are endangered or threatened.
United States Lacey Act (1900) Prohibits transporting live or dead wild animals or their parts across state borders without a federal permit Endangered Species Act (1973) Endangered or threatened species cannot be hunted, killed, collected or injured in the United States
Rules of the Endangered Species Act National Marine Fisheries Services (NMFS) identifies and list endangered and threatened ocean species. U.S. fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) identifies and list all other endangered and threatened species. Adding or removing a species from the list must be based on biology, not economic or political reasons
Rules of the Endangered Species Act Forbids federal agencies to carry out, fund, or authorize projects that would either jeopardize, destroy or modify the critical habitat. Fines and jail sentences can be imposed on private lands to ensure protection of the habitats of endangered species.
Rules of the Endangered Species Act There are over 1100 species on the list – 60% are plants and 40 % are animals. Hawaii leads this list (298+). Each year about 85 species are added to the list Requires all commercial shipments of wildlife and wildlife products enter or leave the country through one of nine designated ports.
Wild Bird Conservation Act Imposed a moratorium on importing rare bird species
Magnuson Fisheries Management and Conservation Act Gives the federal government authority to manage fisheries in the zone between 3 and 200 miles off the U.S. shore. There is no limit on the number of U.S. fishing vessels, but quotas can be imposed on the quantity of fish taken.
Other Solutions Debt-For-Nature Swap Page 670 (old book Biosphere reserves Page 633 (old book) Reintroduction of endangered species