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Sec 4 Mid-Year Review Environmental Science. The periodic table.

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Presentation on theme: "Sec 4 Mid-Year Review Environmental Science. The periodic table."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sec 4 Mid-Year Review Environmental Science

2 The periodic table

3 Review of the Atom Proton (+) Neutron (o) Electron (-) Orbit

4 How it works Each column of the table are called groups/families. Each member of a group has the same number of valence electrons

5 Important Definitions: Valence Electron: Number of electrons on the last orbit of the atom A Group corresponds to the columns of the periodic table. All elements of a group share similar properties such as reactivity (they have the same number of valence electrons).

6 Group 1A : Alkali 1st column except hydrogen They are soft and highly reactive Must be stored in oil due to their high reactivity and are never found in their elemental state in nature but always as a compound

7 Group 2A : Alkaline Earth Metals Highly malleable and reactive, they burn easily in presence of heat Never found in their elemental state but can be exposed to air (often stored in oil) They often form the compound of rocks

8 Group 7A : Halogens Salt creator Second to last column Non-metals that react easily to form compounds including salts

9 Group 8A : Noble Gases Final column Very stable Can be found in their elemental state

10 How does it work? Each row is called a period numbered 1 to 7 Not all periods have the same length

11 Important Definitions: A Period corresponds to the rows of the periodic table. All elements of the same period have the same number of orbits/shells

12 Other divisions… The “staircase” indicates the separation of the metals (under the stair case) from the non-metals (above the stair case). The metalloids are located on either side.

13 Other divisions: Metals Generally good conductors of electricity and heat Ductile and malleable Usually shiny All are solid at room temperature (except Hg) Many react with acids

14 Other divisions: Non-Metals Poor conductors of electricity and heat Many are gases at room temperature The solid non-metals can easily be reduced to powder

15 Other Divisions: Metalloids Properties depend on conditions Seven elements that share properties with the metals and non-metals. Semi conductors (are good conductors in certain conditions, bad in others

16 Representing the invisible

17 General Rules –Electrons seek to fill the shells nearest the nucleus before occupying a further shell –The 1st shell contains a maximum of 2 electrons –The 2nd shell contains a maximum of 8 electrons –The third shell 18 but after 8 the fourth shell fills up first

18 Lewis Notation Notation in which only the valence electrons (electrons on the last shelf) are represented

19 Rutherford-Bohr Important rules: –the period – indicates the number of shells –the group – indicates the number of valence electrons –the atomic number – indicates the total number of protons and electrons in the atom

20 Simplified Atomic Model Clearly shows the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus –The number of neutron equals the relative mass (rounded to the nearest whole number) – the atomic number The electron and shells are similar to that of Rutherford Bohr’s model p+ nº

21 Bonds Ionic Made between a metal and a non-metal or with a polyatomic ion Electrons are given to the non-metal Covalent Made between two non- metals Electrons are shared

22 Nomenclature and notation Nomenclature (naming) –1. is it ionic? –2. is it a polyatomic ion? –3. What is it, precious? name 1st ide ending

23 Ions When an element has more or less electrons than usual Depends on its placing in the preriodic table Wants to have a complete energy shell Loosing electrons = + Gaining electrons = -

24 Notation (writting formulas) 1. Write down the symbol for the first element or polyatomic ion 2. Write down the symbol for the second element or polyatomic ion Add necessary subscript

25 Chemical Changes

26 Chemical Reactions a) Definition: –A reaction that alters the nature and characteristic properties of matter. –The atoms are rearranged. –New molecules are formed

27 Chemical Reactions b) Observable characteristics: –A chemical reaction occurs when: A gas is released Heat is absorbed (endothermic) or released (exothermic) Light is emitted The color changes A precipitate forms

28 Chemical Reactions c) Types of chemical reactions: i) Basic reactions: Synthesis –Two or more reactants become one product Decomposition –One reactant is decomposed into two or more products Oxidation –A reaction where one of the reactants is oxygen (O 2 ) Precipitation –A reaction where two liquid reactants form a solid product

29 Chemical Reactions ii) Other chemical reactions –Acid-Base Neutralization Reactants: Acid + Base Products: Water + Salt –Combustion Type of oxidation that releases a large amount of energy Combustion requires –Oxidation agent –Ignition temperature –Fuel

30 Chemical Reactions –Cellular respiration: Takes O 2 + glucose to form CO 2 +water + energy –Photosynthesis: Takes CO 2 + water + energy to form O 2 + glucose

31 Balancing Stoich

32 So far… Law of conservation of mass

33 So far… Law of conservation of mass

34 So far… Law of conservation of mass

35 So far… Law of conservation of mass

36 Law of conservation of mass

37 H 2 + O 2 H 2 O 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O

38 Stoichiometry H 2 + O 2 H 2 O 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O Moles212 Mass4 g32 g36 g ?

39 Representing chemical equations

40 Synthesis 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O

41 Decomposition 2 H 2 O 2 H 2 + O 2

42 Oxidation Fe + O 2 2 FeO

43 Precipitation A (liquid) + B (liquid) C (solid)

44 Neutralization H ___ (acid) OH (base) H 2 O + salt HCl + NaOH H 2 O + NaCl


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