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Correction System: Responding to Problem Behavior Chris Borgmeier, PhD Portland State University

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1 Correction System: Responding to Problem Behavior Chris Borgmeier, PhD Portland State University

2 Implementing a School-wide Response to Problem Behavior & Bullying Chris Borgmeier Portland State University Revision of slides by: Scott Ross & Rob Horner Utah State Univ.Univ. of Oregon

3 Goals Define a set of core features for Bully Proofing Define how to embed Bully Proofing into existing School-wide Expectations. Provide current update from one research effort.

4 Main Ideas “Bullying” is aggression, harassment, threats or intimidation when one person has greater status, control, or power than the other. Bullying behaviors affect the sense of school as a “safe” environment. video

5 Main Ideas Bullying behavior typically is rewarded (maintained) by the “victims” or “bystanders”  Social attention  Social recognition  Social status  Access to physical items/ preferred activities Bullying behavior is seldom maintained by adult attention

6 Main Ideas All “bully proofing” skills are more effective if the school has first established a set of POSITIVE school-wide behavioral expectations. Great care is needed to prevent a “bully-proofing” effort from becoming a “bully-training” program.

7 A Comprehensive Bully-proofing Model Universal Positive Behavior Support Teach a “stop” signal Staff training Individual Student Supports Define & Teach Expectations Consequences For Behavioral Errors Data System Teach “stop” routine Teach Bystander routine Teach being asked to “stop” Teach how to train “stop” Signal Teach Precorrection Teach supervisor routine Function-based support for Aggressive Student (bully) Function-based support for victim

8 Creating Effective Learning Environments Know what you want… not just what you do not want: “Social Responsibility” Create environments that are:  Predictable  Consistent  Positive  Safe

9 Developing An Effective Approach What does NOT work Identifying the “bully” and excluding him/her from school Pretending that Bullying Behavior is the “fault” of the student/family/victim. Providing clinical support for the “bully” without changing the social feedback she/he receives from peers.

10 Four Roles “stop” signal routine. Aggressor Victim Bystander Adults  Teaching social responsibility  Supervision in unstructured settings

11 4 Steps to Bully-proofing Step #1: Establish a social culture Step #2: Teach a school-wide “stop” signal a) Teach how to use the “Stop Signal” b) Teach “walk away” c) Teach “getting help” Teach roles for  Aggressor, Victim, Bystander & Adult Step #3: Focus on Role of Adults Step #4: Individual Student Support

12 Step 1: Establish a social culture Teach school-wide behavioral expectations Be respectful, be responsible, be safe Acknowledge appropriate behavior Establish clear consequences for inappropriate behavior Develop and use a data collection system for monitoring effects, and making decisions.

13 Establishing a Social Culture Common Vision/Values Common Language Common Experience MEMBERSHIP

14 Teaching Social Responsibility Teach school-wide expectations first  Be respectful  Be responsible  Be safe Focus on “non-structured” settings Cafeteria, Gym, Playground, Hallway, Bus Area Teach Bully Prevention “SKILLS” If someone directs problem behavior toward you. If you see others receive problem behavior If someone tells you to “stop”

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18 BullyProofing: Building a social culture What does work Teach all children to identify and label inappropriate behavior as NOT being examples of expectations.  Not respectful, not responsible., not safe Teach all students a “stop signal” to give when they experience problem behavior.  What to do if you experience problem behavior (victim, recipient)  What to do if you see someone else in a problem situation (bystander) Teach all students what to do if someone delivers the “stop signal”

19 Social Responsibility Matrix Location 1Location 2Location 3Location 4 Identify most common problem behavior “Stop” signal Walk skill Reporting Skill

20 Anticipate Common Challenges Identify common problem areas & problem behaviors Start with common areas  Playground  Cafeteria  Hallways Identify most common problem behaviors  Link to School-wide Rules/Expectations

21 Social Responsibility Matrix PlaygroundLunch Room Hall wayBus Area Identify problem behavior Pushing in line: Not respectful Throwing food: Not respectful or responsible Name calling: Not respectful Pushing others: Not safe or respectful “Stop” signal (for self/ for others) Walk skill Reporting Skill

22 Step #2: Teach a school-wide “stop” signal If someone is directing problem behavior to you, or someone you are with, tell them to “stop.”  Pair verbal & visual prompt What is the “Stop Signal” for your school? Have a physical as well as verbal signal  “Stop”“Uncool”  “Enough”“Time-out”  “Don’t”“Whatever!” The language and signal need to age appropriate, and contextually acceptable.

23 Social Responsibility Matrix PlaygroundLunch Room Hall wayBus Area Identify problem behavior Pushing in line: Not respectful Throwing food: Not respectful or responsible Name calling: Not respectful Pushing others: Not safe or respectful “Stop” signal (for self/ for others) “stop” Walk skill Reporting Skill

24 Sample Lesson w/ Class NEED: Small candle, clear glass cup, match 1) Compare fire & problem behavior w/ the class Light candle 2) Explain how problem behavior needs peer attention to keep going just like a candle needs oxygen to stay lit 3) Discuss forms of peer attention Arguing w/ peer that teases you Laughing at someone being picked on Watching problem behavior & doing nothing

25 Sample Lesson w/ Class (continued) 4) Explain how taking away peer attention is like taking away the oxygen (cover lit candle w/ glass) 5) Students can take away peer attention that keeps problem behavior going by: Telling someone teasing you to “stop” Walking away from problem behavior Helping another student by saying “stop” or by walking away from problem behavior with them Telling an adult 6) Model/Lead/Test – school Stop/Walk/Talk behaviors

26 Teach how to use the “Stop Signal” How do you deliver the “stop signal” if you feel someone is not being respectful? (e.g. you feel intimidated, harassed, bullied)? How do you deliver the “stop signal” if you see someone else being harassed, teased, bullied? What to do if someone uses the “stop signal” with you? Note: Include “non-examples” of when and how to use “stop” signal.

27 What if you are asked to Stop? Good examples of responding to stop/walk/talk should include:  Responding appropriately even when you don’t think you did anything wrong  Responding appropriately even if you think the other student is just trying to get you in trouble  How to respond if someone says “stop” to you: Stop what you are doing Take a deep breath & count to 3 Go on with your day

28 Stop Signal When to say “Stop” Johnny pokes Sally in the back over & over while in line Susie teases Sally & calls her a bad name Joey tackles Sam while playing touch football Sam steals the ball away from Fred when they are not playing a game that involves stealing When NOT to say “Stop” Johnny accidentally bumps into Sally at recess Kelly makes a suggestion for a game that Fred does not like Sam steals the ball away from Joe when they are playing a basketball game Sally continues to poke Susie in line after Susie has delivered the stop signal

29 Team Task Select an appropriate “stop” signal for your school.  How might you include students in defining this signal?  Ensure that the “stop” signal includes BOTH a verbal and physical component.  Develop a lesson plan for teaching students to effectively and appropriately use stop sign Prioritize high-risk, less structured settings Build in opportunities for student practice of “stop”

30 Walk Away Sometimes even when students tell others to “stop”, problem behaviors will continue. When this happens students are to “Walk Away” form the problem behavior

31 Social Responsibility Matrix PlaygroundLunch Room Hall wayBus Area Identify problem behavior Pushing in line: Not respectful Throwing food: Not respectful or responsible Name calling: Not respectful Pushing others: Not safe or respectful “Stop” signal (for self/ for others) “stop” Walk skillWalk away Reporting Skill

32 Teach “walk away” Most socially initiated problem behavior is maintained by peer attention.  Victim behavior inadvertently maintains taunt, tease, intimidate, harassment behavior.  Teach bystanders to facilitate “walking away”  Build social reward for victim for “walking away” Do not reward inappropriate behavior.

33 Teach “walk away” Model “walking away”  When students experience continued problem behavior or when they see another student experiencing continued problem behavior  Teach students to encourage one another when they use the appropriate response Practice “walking away” with student volunteers at the front of the class  Include at least 3 examples of how to “walk away” and at least one example of when not no

34 “Talk” – Getting help Even when students use “stop” and “walk away” from the problem, sometimes students will continue to behave inappropriately toward them. When this happens students should “Talk” to an adult NOTE: If student is in danger talk to an adult immediately… stop & walk can be bypassed

35 Social Responsibility Matrix PlaygroundLunch Room Hall wayBus Area Identify problem behavior Pushing in line: Not respectful Throwing food: Not respectful or responsible Name calling: Not respectful Pushing others: Not safe or respectful “Stop” signal (for self/ for others) “stop” Walk skillWalk away Reporting Skill Tell teacher

36 Teach Talk Where is the line between “talking” and tattling?  “Talking” is when you have tried to solve the problem yourself, and have used the “stop” and “walk” steps first  Tattling is when you do not use the “stop “ and “walk away” steps before “talking” to an adult  Tattling is when your goal is to get the other person in trouble

37 Teach Talk Practice “talk” w/ student volunteer in front of class A child comes to you and reports that someone else was not respectful  “Did you say stop?”  “Did you walk away?” Talking to the child who was disrespectful  “Did he say stop”  “What did you do”  “Show me doing it the right way”

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41 Team Task Develop Lesson Plans  Identify high probability ‘bullying’ problem behaviors across setting  Develop plan for teaching & practicing across settings: Stop – Walk – Talk Teach & practice responses across roles:  Victim/ Bystander/ Bully/ Staff

42 Step #3: Focus on Role of Adults How to teach expectations  Stop – Walk -- Talk Pre-correct (quick practice of appropriate skills just prior to entering “high probability” context)  With whole class  With “at risk” students Reporting routine  What do you say when a student comes to you?  What do you ask of a student accused of being a bully?

43 Look for students that use the 3 step response appropriately & reward Reinforce students for coming to “talk” to you

44 Ask who, what, when & where Ensure the student’s safety: Is bullying still happening? What is the severity? Is the reporting student at risk?/ Fear of revenge? What does the student need to feel safe? Did you tell the student to stop? If yes, praise student for appropriate response Did you walk away?  If yes, praise student for appropriate response

45 Team Task Build a plan for staff.  Precorrection prior to unsupervised contexts  Specific precorrection of “at risk” student  Foundations of active supervision across school settings  Move, Observer, Interact, Intervene Early  When student comes to you with a complaint  Focus first on student coming to you with compliant:  Did you say “stop”… did you “walk away”  Do not reward tattling.  Questions for student who was viewed as aggressive  Did someone tell you to “stop”  Did you “stop”

46 Additional Resources  For detailed information on implementing the Bullyproofing Response to Problem Behavior  Go to Click on Bully Prevention in SWPBIS  Or the direct Link x?PBIS_ResourceID=785 x?PBIS_ResourceID=785  Elementary & MS versions


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