Social Participation “New kinds of online resources—such as social networking sites, blogs, wikis, and virtual communities—have allowed people with common interests to meet, share ideas, and collaborate in innovate ways. The emphasis on social learning stands in sharp contrast to the traditional Cartesian view of knowledge and learning—I think therefore I am” “This new social way of learning says, We participate, therefore we are Brown, J. S. & Adler, R. P. (2008). Minds on fire: Open education the long tail, and learning 2.0, EDUCAUSE Review
Social Participation “Participatory culture shifts the focus of literacy from one of individual expression to community. The new literacies almost all involve social skills developed through collaboration and networking involvement.” Jenkins, H., Clinton, K., Purushotma, R., Robison, A., & Weigel, M. (2006). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. Retrieved November 29, 2009 from http://digitallearning.macfound.org/atf/cf/%7B7E45C7E0-A3E0-4B89-AC9C- E807E1B0AE4E%7D/JENKINS_WHITE_PAPER.PDF
Students are drawn to hot technologies. Students report technology delivers major academic benefits. Students prefer, and say they learn more in, classes with online components. Students juggle personal and academic interactions.
Time-to-Adoption: One year or less – Mobile Apps Tablet Computing Two to three years – Game-Based Learning Learning Analytics Four to five years – Gesture-Based Computing Internet of Things
Digital Media Consumption Medium199920042009 TV content3:473:514:29 Music/audio1:481:442:31 Computer:271:021:29 Video games:26:491:13 Print:43 :38 Movies:18:25 Total media exposure7:298:3310:45 Multitasking proportion 16%26%29% Total media use6:196:217:38 Platform20042009 iPod/MP3 player18%76% Cell phone39%66% Laptop12%29% Among all 8- to 18-year-olds, average amount of time spent with each medium in a typical day: Among all 8- to 18-year-olds, percent who own each platform: Source: Kaiser Family Foundation (2010). Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds
Digital Media Consumption Members of the 18-24 age group and… Texting: Mean = 109.5 message a day (3,200 per month) More than double 25-34 age group (average of 41 messages a day) Smart phones: No longer a luxury: 62% own smartphones Higher percentage than all other adult age groups aside from 25-34 year olds Social media: 35% of all U.S. Facebook users are 18-25 years old (highest percentage of any age group) 98% use any type of social media each month (again, the highest percentage) Sources: Burbary, K. (2011). Facebook Demographics Revisited – 2011 Statistics Experian Marketing Serivces. (2011) The 2011 Social Media Consumer Trend and Benchmark Report. Neilsen. (2012). Survey: New U.S. Smartphone Growth by Age and Income. Pew Research Center (2011). Pew Internet and American Life Project, Americans and Text Messaging
UD and UDL defined in law UD in IDEA (2004) The term “universal design” has the meaning given the term in section 3002 of title 29 [Assistive Technology Act of 1998, as amended]. 20 U.S.C. § 1401(35) The term “universal design” has the meaning given the term in section 3002 of title 29 [Assistive Technology Act of 1998, as amended]. 20 U.S.C. § 1401(35) UDL in HEOA (2008) The term “universal design for learning” means a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that-- (A) provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and (B) reduces barriers in instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who are limited English proficient. 20 U.S.C. §1003(24) The term “universal design for learning” means a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that-- (A) provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and (B) reduces barriers in instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who are limited English proficient. 20 U.S.C. §1003(24)
National Education Technology Plan (2010) Emphasized use of technology to promote personalized learning that is more participatory and engaging. Discussed UDL as a framework that can benefit all learners, in particular those that have been underserved.
The Power of Digital Media Digital media are versatile. Digital media are transformable. Digital media are dynamic by nature. Digital media can be manipulated. Rose, D. H. & Gravel, J. W. (2012). Curricular opportunities in the digital age Boston: Jobs for the Future. Retrieved online from http://www.studentsatthecenter.org/papers/curricular-opportunities-digital-agehttp://www.studentsatthecenter.org/papers/curricular-opportunities-digital-age
Origins of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) CAST believes that “barriers to learning are not, in fact, inherent in the capacities of learners, but instead arise in learners' interactions with inflexible educational goals, materials, methods, and assessments.” Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age, p. vi http://www.udlcenter.org/
UDL Origins UDL moves away from deficit model of disability - learner variability is viewed as a function of barriers in curriculum/environment. Books and other curricula materials are often inaccessible to students …present a barrier as a fixed media.
Universal design for learning Combines new insights from brain research about the nature of learner differences …new insights from brain research … with a century of best practices in progressive education.
Why UDL? A framework focused on developing learner expertise
LEARNER DESIGN for diversity difference variability
Learner variability is the norm! http://udlseries.udlcenter.org/presentatio ns/learner_variability.html?plist=explore http://udlseries.udlcenter.org/presentatio ns/learner_variability.html?plist=explore Learners vary in the ways they take in information Learners vary in their abilities and approaches Learning changes by situation and context Learners vary across their development
Three Key Findings “Students come to a classroom with preconceived ideas about how knowledge works and their initial understanding needs to be engaged. Learning transfer is heightened or hampered by the orientation of this prior knowledge ” “Distinctions are evident between expert and novice learners. Experts are able to notice, organize, and interpret information more successfully than novices. Experts have developed the skills to quickly recognize patterns in information and organize knowledge around key concepts. “ Students need to develop a metacognitive approach to learning so that they can self-assess, understand, and appreciate their strengths and differences ” Bransford, Brown, & Cocking (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington: National Academy Press
“As a Platform for Student Centered Learning… “..the term UDL emphasizes the special purpose of learning environments….they foster changes in knowledge and skills that we call learning” “…success also requires that the means for learning– the pedagogical goals, methods, materials and assessments….are accessible…to all students” Rose, D. H. & Gravel, J. W. (2012). Curricular opportunities in the digital ageBoston: Jobs for the Future. Retrieved online fromhttp://www.studentsatthecenter.org/papers/curricular-opportunities-digital-agehttp://www.studentsatthecenter.org/papers/curricular-opportunities-digital-age
UDL: Neurological Underpinnings Recognition Networks The "what" of learning Strategic Networks The "how" of learning Affective Networks The "why" of learning “When we deal with brain science, we are dealing with the organ that makes us unique individuals, that gives us our personality, memories, emotions, dreams, creative abilities, and at times our sinister selves.” Neurodiversity = Functional diversity Sources: Rose & Meyer, 2002. Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age. Fischbach, R. L. in Ackerman, Sandra J, ed. Hard Science, Hard Choices. (2006).
Multiple Means of Representation Examples Variation in the mode of presentation Text-to-speech Video with captioning Built-in talking glossary Built-in language translation Highlight phrases/patterns “Chunking” information Graphic Organizers to illustrate the big picture and key concepts Guiding questions
One book: Many options Digital/print access Sectioned chapters Embedded structural supports Links to support background knowledge Links to media, web to activate interests
Multi-media for student expression (video, audio, text, drawing) Concept mapping tools Scaffolds and prompts (stop and think) that gradually fade over time Checklists Embedded coaches and mentors Assessment rubrics Multiple Means of Action and Expression
Multiple Means of Engagement / Affective Examples - Choice afforded -Rewards/recognition -Age appropriate and culturally relevant activities -Charts/schedules/ visible timers -Computer-based/digital scheduling tools -Display of goals -Group work/collaboration -Personal journals -Collecting and displaying of data
1: Provide options for perception4: Provide options for physical action 7: Provide options for recruiting interest 1.1 Offer ways of customizing the display of information 1.2 Offer alternatives for auditory information 1.3 Offer alternatives for visual information 4.1 Vary the methods for response and navigation 4.2 Optimize access to tools and assistive technologies 7.1 Optimize individual choice and autonomy 7.2 Optimize relevance, value, and authenticity 7.3 Minimize threats and distractions UDL Guidelines 1, 4 & 7: The foundational levels (guidelines) for learner access, success and involvement.
2: Provide options for language, mathematical expressions, and symbols 5: Provide options for expression and communication 8: Provide options for sustaining effort and persistence 2.1 Clarify vocabulary and symbols 2.2 Clarify syntax and structure 2.3 Support decoding of text, mathematical notation, and symbols 2.4 Promote understanding across languages 2.5 Illustrate through multiple media 5.1 Use multiple media for communication 5.2 Use multiple tools for construction and composition 5.3 Build fluencies with graduated levels of support for practice and performance 8.1 Heighten salience of goals and objectives 8.2 Vary demands and resources to optimize challenge 8.3 Foster collaboration and community 8.4 Increase mastery-oriented feedback UDL Guidelines 2, 5 & 7: The strategic levels (guidelines) to build learner meaning, connection and understanding.
3: Provide options for comprehension6: Provide options for executive functions9: Provide options for self-regulation 3.1 Activate or supply background knowledge 3.2. Highlight patterns, critical features, big ideas, and relationships 3.3 Guide information processing, visualization, and manipulation 3.4 Maximize transfer and generalization 6.1 Guide appropriate goal-setting 6.2 Support planning and strategy development 6.3 Facilitate managing information and resources 6.4 Enhance capacity for monitoring progress 9.1 Promote expectations and beliefs that optimize motivation 9.2 Facilitate personal coping skills and strategies 9.3 Develop self-assessment and reflection UDL Guidelines 3, 6 & 9: The mastery levels (guidelines) to solidify learner understanding, interest and capabilities. http://udlseries.udlcenter.org/presentations/bach_to_gaga.html?plist=lea d#
Implementation and UDL: 4 Key Areas Goals Methods Materials
Goals Traditional Learning goals may get skewed by the inflexible ways and means of achieving them. UDL Learning goals are attained in many individualized ways by many customized means.
Materials Traditional Mostly print and everyone gets the same materials. Few options UDL Variety of materials, media, and formats to reach learners with diverse abilities, styles, and needs equally well.
Methods Traditional Teacher-centered (lecture) Homogeneous grouping Burden on student to adapt to “get it” UDL Interactivity Heterogeneous grouping Rich supports for understanding, independent learning
Assessment Traditional Confuse goals with means Summative – when it’s too late to adjust instruction! UDL Many possible means as long as they measure learning! Supports instructional improvement
Bob’s Development of Learning Expertise through a UDL lens 1.1 Provide differing ways to customize the information. 2. 5 Illustrate information through multiple media. 3.1 Provide opportunities to activate background knowledge. 4.1 Vary the methods for response and navigation. 5.2 Use multiple tools for composition and construction. 6.1 Guide appropriate goal-setting. 7.1 Optimize individual choice and autonomy. 8.4 Increase mastery- 0riented feedback. 9.3 Develop self- assessment and reflection.
Evolving Research GW Dissertation Research Study, “The perceptions of universal design for learning in college classrooms”, F. G. Smith (Spring, 2008) When faculty members used UDL strategies in their classes there was a positive relationship to student interest and engagement r =.31, p <.05. 2009-2011 Research Study, “Analyzing a College Course that Adheres to the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Framework” F. G. Smith (In review) When faculty members used UDL strategies in their classes there was a positive relationship to student interest and engagement r =.40, p <.01 Schelly, C. L., Davies, P. L., & Spooner, C. L. (2011). Student perceptions of faculty implementation of universal design for learning. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 24(1), 17-30. UDL was included in training for college instructors, their course designs were more effective and student’s perceptions were more positive
New Tools and Resources CAST UDL Bookbuilder CAST UDL Exchange CAST UDL Toolkit CAST UDL Studio A New Digital Version: “Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age”
UDL Connect Groups For continued shared discussion….