2Updates to wikiAdded:Resources on person-centered planningResources on assessment“Cool & Free AT Resources”Lindaburkhart.com resourcesPlease check and make sure links are working to the readings & assignments, etc.Let me know if there are any problems accessing materials on the wiki
3Annotated Bibliography Assignment Example on the wiki.5 Peer-reviewed, empirical journal articlesUse APA format for citationTopics (Choose One….Now!):Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)Functional Communication TrainingVideo Modeling for teaching communication/social skillsVideo Modeling for teaching academic/functional skillsLiteracy Interventions for Students Using AACPeer Mediated Instruction/Peer Supports for Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities
4How do you involve general education in the process of supporting students with significant disabilities?Ability awareness for staffSchool-wide approach/visionEmpower general education teachers as the main teacher for the student, SPED and instructional aides are supports to instruction in classCurriculum co-planning with general education teacher, speech/language therapist, etc.Consider supports as both class-wide and specific to the student within the general education curriculum.
5Teaching Communication Skills General Education Classroom Ideal environment- numerous opportunities to communicate with responsive communicative partnersHowever, students need specific & systematic instruction to acquire desired skillsEducational Team must develop teaching strategies and implement them consistently
6Six Guiding Principles to Creating an Inclusive School All instruction is guided by General EducationAll school resources are configured to benefit all studentsSchool Proactively addresses social development and citizenshipSchool is data-based learning organizationSchool has open boundaries in relation to its families and its communityDistrict supports school-centered approach and extensive systems-change activities required to implement a school-wide modelSailor & Roger, 2005
7ChangeWhen change occurs individuals are usually pushed out of their box, or their comfort zone. In the case of full inclusion, this change will effect the general education teacher and the special education teacher the most.Incorporate notion of Team-Work where we can pull together, instead of pulling apart, each team member’s expertise into an inclusive educational program
8Person-Centered Planning Strength-based shared understanding of :Values,Long-term goals,Current programs,Barriers to participation & success ,Possible variables influencing barriers
9Person-centered Approach to Assessment Involve the student & family every step of the wayDon’t think of assessment “on” a student, but rather “with” a studentEssential to understand student’s unique physical and sensory skillsHow they see, hear, moveE.g., if a student has no functional vision and does not use speech, then an alternate form of expressive communication may probably involve…..????Use of objects, parts of objects, gestures, & manual signs
10Supporting AAC learners is a collaborative effort Family/caregivers & friendsPresent & future employersTeachers (SPED & Gen Ed.)Speech/language specialistsPhysical & occupational therapistsStudent
11Parody on Special Education Director Leading a Staff Meeting Strictly meant to be a parody…though a lot of truth is said in jest…BA
13Define Assistive Technology: Assistive technology (AT) is defined as any item, piece of equipment, or product, whether acquired commercially, off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. (P.L , The Technology Related Assistance Act of 1988).
14Define Augmentative & Alternative Communication: Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) includes all forms of communication (other than oral speech) that are used to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas.-American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (asha.org)
16External Community Supports I hear “One Voice”Academic Support System:Response to InterventionSocial/Behavior Support System: School-wide PBSContext for: Person Centered Planning, Functional Assessment & Wraparound
17SETT- similar to ecological inventory StudentSEnvironmentETaskTToolsWhat are the student’s current abilities?What are the student’s special needs?What are the functional areas of concern?What activities take place in the environment?What activities do other students do that this student cannot currently participate in?What assistive technology does the student have access to or currently use?What specific tasks occur in the environment?What activities is the studentexpected to do?What does success look like?Are the tools being considered on a continuum from no/low to high-tech?Are the tools student centered and task oriented and reflect the student’s current needs?What are the training requirements for the student, family and staff?
18Functional Communication Training (FCT) FCT involves teaching specific communication skills that are functionally equivalent to problem behavior, based on a functional behavior assessment (FBA) Behavior may serve a number of functions: -obtaining desired items, activities, attention, or environments -escaping a nonpreferred or nondesired activity -regulating levels of sensory arousal
19Light (1989), Communicative Competence for AAC users made up of: Linguistic CompetenceOperational CompetenceSocial CompetenceStrategic Competence
25Basic Conditions for Communication (Beukelman & Mirenda, 2005) At least 2 people who understand each otherForm (i.e. a way to send the message)Content (i.e., something to talk about)Function: Reason/Purpose to communicateEducational team members must ensure these are addressed
26Social Issues in Communication Students in special education classrooms tend to have interactions with adults but limited interaction with other students (Foreman et al., 2004)What affects does this have on: learning communication, and making friends?Foreman et al., found that students with disabilities in general education were involved in significantly higher levels of communication interactions than their matched pair in special education classrooms (2004).
27Two key parts of language… Receptive Language:Understanding what people mean when they speak to you.Expressive LanguageBeing able to speak/communicate so that others understand you.
28Communication Forms (Behaviors) Multi-modal nature of communication No one form of communication will meet all needs or all social situationsTeaching a combination of different modes is necessaryExamples: Vocalization, body movements, pointing, facial expressions, nodding, gestures, use of object symbols, picture symbols, manual signs
29Communicative Functions/ Intent RequestInitiate/greetingTerminateAttentionNamingAccept/RejectProtesting situationsAffirming situationsExpressing choices or preferences
30Contents of Communication When there is nothing to say, there is no communication (i.e. the awkward pause when run out of things to say)Individuals with severe disabilities need to have access to a variety of objects, pictures, and photos
31Communication Skills Speech Language Conversation Skills Articulation, Resonance, Voice, FluencyLanguagePhonology, Syntax, Semantics, PragmaticsConversation SkillsTurn taking, content, initiation, closureArticulation - production of consonants, vowels with lips, teeth and tongueResonance - balance of airflow between nose and mouthVoice - vibration of vocal chords in larnyxFluency - rate and rhythm; rising and falling; change in pitchPhonology - rules for structure, distribution, sequencing of speech soundsSyntax - rules for word order, sentence organization and word relationshipsSemantics - word meaningPragmatics - language use in context; how adapted to different social situations
32Problems in the Classroom? Receptive language deficitsCannot recall sequences of ideas presented orallyDifficulty understanding humor, sarcasm, figurative languageMay not understand questionsTrouble following directionsCannot retain information presented orallyDifficulty understanding compound and complex sentences
33Expressive DeficitsSpoken language may include incorrect grammar or syntaxLimited use of vocabularyFrequent hesitations/can’t find right wordsDifficulty discussing abstract, temporal or spatial conceptsJumps from topic to topicAfraid to ask questions, does not know what questions to ask, does not know how to ask questions.
34Assessing Communication Skills Standardized Tests will not provide the information you needAssessment driven by questions that need to be answered to help benefit from communication intervention—Team EffortInterviews with Significant Others & Ecological- Functional Assessment Process
35Research on Ecological Assessment Arose out of dissatisfaction with failures in adapting standardized assessments for students with significant disabilitiesInformation obtained had minimal impact on educational planning(Sigafoos et al., 1987; Blankenship, 1985; Cole et al., 1985)Ecological reports result in:Higher ratings of expected educational outcomes (Linehan & Brady, 1985)Educators more likely to recommend related services and less restrictive placements
36Steps in Ecological Assessment Process Step 1: Plan with Student & FamilyStep 2: Summarize what is known about the studentStep 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student PreferencesStep 4: Assess student’s instructional programStep 5: Develop ecological assessment report
38Assessing Receptive Communication Skills Receptive skills for a specific activity need to be identifiedWhat does the student do to demonstrate that the message has been received and understood?Document what forms of communication seem to be best understood
39Assessing Expressive Communication Skills Any attempt by the student to start, maintain, or end a communicative exchange should be noted.How the students communicates (the form)—Skill level?Why the student is communicating (function/intent)— different forms of communication for different purposes?What the student talks about (content)—information on breadth of skills and accessibility?
44Embedded In-class activity Practice using these interviews with a partner based on your case study OR you may use a student that you have or are working with.Note your evaluation of using these interview questions.
45Assessing current communication Communication Matrix by Charity Rowland(designs to learn website)Organized by communication functionList of behaviorsNot used, emerging or mastered
46Embedded In-class activity Use your case study or student you know and practice using the communication matrix website with a partner.Write your evaluation of the use of this online tool.
47Ecological-Functional Assessment Process for communication Uses observational techniques to analyze skill demands of the natural environment and determine how the student performs within the environmentLeads directly to intervention plan (Snell, 2002)
483. List sub-environments 1. List Domains2. List environments3. List sub-environments4. List activities associated with each sub environment5. Task analyze each activity to identify skills6. Observe the performance of the activity to identify needs
49Communication Ecological Inventory Worksheet (Figure 8-10, p Communication Ecological Inventory Worksheet (Figure 8-10, p.249, Best, Heller, Bigge, 2005)1. Ask: Where does the student spend time? (environment, sub-environment, activities)2. Select Activity: (e.g., ordering food)3. Observe: (for vocabulary used in activity)List Expressive Vocabulary used in the activityList Receptive Vocabulary used in the activity4. Review listed words and determine which words & skills need to be taught to the student.
50Example of Communication Ecological Inventory Where does the student spend time?Environment: Community: McDonald’sSubenvironment: McDonald’s counter areaActivities: Ordering food, waiting in line, socializing in lineSelect activity: Ordering Food
51Example Cont’d Observe vocabulary used in activity Expressive: “I want, hamburger, fish sandwich, small, medium, large, coke, milkshake, yes/no, that’s all, thank you, my order is wrong, I need, extra ketchup, for here, please repeat that, how much?”Receptive: “May I help you?, Is that all?, Here or to go?, Your order will be ready soon?, I don’t understand, Your total is_____”Review listed words: which are above, below, and at the student’s level. Which are within or outside student’s experience, which are necessary for the task
52Embedded in-class activity Complete the communication ecological inventory worksheet on your in-class activity.Use only one activity in the school environment (e.g., asking to play a game at recess, participating in writing activity in language arts class)
53Ecological Inventory of Communication Skills Steps inActivityNatural CuesComm. SkillsNeededStudentPerformanceDiscrepancyAnalysisInterv.PlanReceptive or Expressive+ or -Why student isn’t doing the stepsuggestions