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WAR at SEA & in the AIR People tend to think of the WWI just taking place in Europe on land, however much was happening at sea and in the air.

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Presentation on theme: "WAR at SEA & in the AIR People tend to think of the WWI just taking place in Europe on land, however much was happening at sea and in the air."— Presentation transcript:

1 WAR at SEA & in the AIR People tend to think of the WWI just taking place in Europe on land, however much was happening at sea and in the air

2 WAR AT SEA At the beginning of WWI, Canada had 2 midsized warships At the beginning of WWI, Canada had 2 midsized warships 1) the Niobe 2) the Rainbow

3 HMCS NIOBE Armed with guns to fight other ships and covering the small boats alongside the HMCS Niobe was part of Canada's response to Britain's request for naval support. Armed with guns to fight other ships and covering the small boats alongside the HMCS Niobe was part of Canada's response to Britain's request for naval support. Niobe transfer from Britain as a training ship for Canada's new navy Niobe transfer from Britain as a training ship for Canada's new navy Sir Wilfrid Laurier's had plans for a fleet of locally-built cruisers and destroyers under Canadian control. Sir Wilfrid Laurier's had plans for a fleet of locally-built cruisers and destroyers under Canadian control. The Liberals (Laurier) in 1910 established a distinct Naval Service of Canada (Naval service bill) The Liberals (Laurier) in 1910 established a distinct Naval Service of Canada (Naval service bill) The Conservatives (Robert Borden) preferred direct financial support to Britain. The Conservatives (Robert Borden) preferred direct financial support to Britain.

4 HMCS Rainbow When war was declared on 4 August, 1914, HMCS Rainbow was already on its way to Mexico with orders to seek and destroy a pair of armed and aggressive German cruisers. Despite her lack of guns and armour, Rainbow was expected to outface the heavier ships and big guns of the enemy and escort the vulnerable British vessels safe back to their base.

5 Canada’s Role By the end of the war, Canada had 112 warships (in many cases they refitted yachts and other vessels) By the end of the war, Canada had 112 warships (in many cases they refitted yachts and other vessels) Canada’s main role –shipping troops and supplies to Europe Canada’s main role –shipping troops and supplies to Europe –Merchant Marine carried weapons, munitions, food, troops

6 Clarification on Mustard vs Chlorine Chlorine and Mustard gas are gaseous chemical compounds that are highly toxic to humans. They were both used as weapons during the First World War. Chlorine gas was the first chemical weapon used in the war at the Battle of Ypres. It was released from large tanks and allowed to drift towards Allied positions. Chlorine is heavier than air and thus stays close to ground level, making it very effective in trench warfare. Mustard gas was not commonly used in such a massive release and was most often deployed via artillery bombardment. Mustard gas blisters the lungs and other exposed areas and is generally more lethal than chlorine.

7 Britain vs. Germany Main naval rivalry was between Germany and Britain Main naval rivalry was between Germany and Britain Germans used submarines (U-Boats) to attack any ships heading to Britain Germans used submarines (U-Boats) to attack any ships heading to Britain Britain developed Q-ships to find and destroy U-Boats (Unterseeboot) ~undersea Britain developed Q-ships to find and destroy U-Boats (Unterseeboot) ~undersea Blockade of Germany meant Germans were starving by 1915 Blockade of Germany meant Germans were starving by 1915

8 Q ship- British U boat- German

9 Germany’s retaliation Germany introduced “unrestricted submarine warfare” which meant they attacked ANY ship heading for Britain Germany introduced “unrestricted submarine warfare” which meant they attacked ANY ship heading for Britain –German U-Boat sank a passenger ship called the Lusitania, a British luxury liner killing over 1000 people Ships started to travel in groups called convoys to protect themselves Ships started to travel in groups called convoys to protect themselves

10 Convoys Sailing in fleets/convoys meant that: Sailing in fleets/convoys meant that: Supply ships sailed with escorts of armed Destroyers that kept constant watch. Supply ships sailed with escorts of armed Destroyers that kept constant watch.

11 Discussion Questions Was it fair that the German’s torpedoed the Lusitania? Was it fair that the German’s torpedoed the Lusitania?

12 WAR in the AIR Fokker plane Fokker plane Designed by a Dutch airplane builder Anthony Herman Gerard Fokker Designed by a Dutch airplane builder Anthony Herman Gerard Fokker Used by the Germans in WWI Used by the Germans in WWI

13 An air ace, a flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator/pilot credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat. An air ace, a flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator/pilot credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat. The actual number of air victories required to officially qualify as an "ace" has varied, but is usually considered to be five or more The actual number of air victories required to officially qualify as an "ace" has varied, but is usually considered to be five or more Canada had a group of Canadian flyers/fighter pilots called the Black Flight Canada had a group of Canadian flyers/fighter pilots called the Black Flight Average life expectancy of an air fighter was 11 days. Average life expectancy of an air fighter was 11 days. Battles between air fighters were called dogfights. Battles between air fighters were called dogfights.

14 Canada’s Air Aces Above a picture of the Triplane that Collishaw would have used – painted jet black. The members of the Naval Squadron 10 also named their planes, Black Maria, Black Roger, Black Death, Black sheep and Black Prince. Ray Collishaw Billy Bishop

15 BILLY BISHOP Left Royal Military College in Kingston, ON when the war broke out in 1914 and joined Mississauga Horse Calvary Unit, and the Mounted Infantry Unit in London, ON. Left Royal Military College in Kingston, ON when the war broke out in 1914 and joined Mississauga Horse Calvary Unit, and the Mounted Infantry Unit in London, ON. He showed natural ability with a gun and excelled on the firing range. Some said he had “super-human” eyesight – able to hit targets so far away that others only saw a dot. He showed natural ability with a gun and excelled on the firing range. Some said he had “super-human” eyesight – able to hit targets so far away that others only saw a dot. Bishop quickly became frustrated with the mud of the trenches and the lack of action. Bishop quickly became frustrated with the mud of the trenches and the lack of action. In July 1915, after watching an Royal Flying Corps (RFC) aircraft return from a mission, Bishop said, "...it's clean up there! I'll bet you don't get any mud or horsesh*t on you up there. If you die, at least it would be a clean death." In July 1915, after watching an Royal Flying Corps (RFC) aircraft return from a mission, Bishop said, "...it's clean up there! I'll bet you don't get any mud or horsesh*t on you up there. If you die, at least it would be a clean death."

16 Billy Bishop Shot down 5 enemies in a month from March 17– April 8,1917. Shot down 5 enemies in a month from March 17– April 8,1917. Painted the nose of his aircraft blue (the mark of an ace) to celebrate Painted the nose of his aircraft blue (the mark of an ace) to celebrate Became known to the Germans as “Hell’s Handmaiden” Became known to the Germans as “Hell’s Handmaiden” Bounty was placed on his head Bounty was placed on his head Won a Military Cross for claiming 12 enemies in the month of April alone Won a Military Cross for claiming 12 enemies in the month of April alone Mechanic counted 210 bullet holes in his plane after one of his patrols Mechanic counted 210 bullet holes in his plane after one of his patrols Won a Distinguished Service Order for shooting down two enemy aircraft while being attacked by four others Won a Distinguished Service Order for shooting down two enemy aircraft while being attacked by four others Also won a Victory Cross for his attack on the German aerodrome in June 1917 Also won a Victory Cross for his attack on the German aerodrome in June 1917

17 Germany’s Red Baron Manfred von Richthofen He was a German fighter pilot with the Imperial German Army Air Service during WWI. considered the ace-of-aces of that war as he was officially credited with 80 air combat victories victories, more than any other pilot. There are many stories and theories about the red baron’s death, but Canadian novice pilot Wilfrid “Wop” May and Roy Brown essentially took him down together.

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