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Government & Economics of Southwest Asia

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Presentation on theme: "Government & Economics of Southwest Asia"— Presentation transcript:

1 Government & Economics of Southwest Asia

2 Distribution of Power Unitary: power held by one central authority (not necessarily one person) Confederation: state governments hold more power than the central government Federation: powers divided and shared between central and state governments

3 Civic Participation Autocracy: citizens have little or no role in government (one person in complete control of the government) Oligarchy: citizens have little or no role in government (small group in control of the government) Democracy: citizens hold supreme power and exercise it either directly or indirectly through the voting process

4 New types: Parliamentary democracy: real executive power lies in a cabinet composed of members of the legislature Presidential ;Two ruling bodies that have separate jobs and duties (writing laws and enforcing them

5 Governments State of Israel: Parliamentary democracy
Knesset: 120 member Parliament Prime minister is the head of government Current Prime Minister is Benjamin Netanyahu Citizens over the age of 18 can vote for members of the parliament (Knesset) who in turn elect the prime minister

6 Governments Saudi Arabia:
Monarchy; right of succession is hereditary but successor is chosen from the crown princes of the royal family King’s power is limited by Islamic law and he must build consensus among religious leaders before making decisions Citizens have no voting rights and there are no political parties King Abdullah Al Saud

7 Governments Islamic Republic of Iran:
Theocratic republic with a presidential system Very complex and interconnected government system According to the Iranian Constitution, it is “the duty of the Islamic government to furnish all citizens with equal and appropriate opportunities, to provide them with work, and to satisfy their essential needs so that the course of their progress may be assured”

8 Governments The Supreme Leader of Iran is the highest ranking political and religious leader in Iran Supreme Leader is appointed by the Assembly of Experts Appoints the commander of the armed forces, director of the radio and TV network, prayer leaders in city mosques, and members of the national security councils Has sole power to declare war or peace Ayatollah Khamenei

9 Governments Iran: All citizens can vote over the age of 18 for president, legislature, and Assembly of Experts President is the highest political authority after the Supreme Leader President is elected by the people, serves a 4-year term and can be re-elected once President is the head of government but can be removed by the Supreme Leader at any time President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

10 Economics Saudi Arabia: World’s leading producer of oil
Over 95% of oil industry is operated by the government Government has been trying to increase private ownership of business and more foreign investment One-third of Saudi Arabia’s GDP is based on exports to other countries A huge increase in literacy rate in the last 30 years has also increased GDP

11 Economics Israel: Much of Israel’s GDP comes from high tech manufacturing, financial services, and agriculture Have developed a strong technology industry to make up for the lack of natural resources Israel spends a lot of money to be sure their workers are trained Government owns many businesses, but is gradually privatizing businesses

12 Economics Turkey: Diversified economy; service, manufacturing, and agriculture Moving from government controlled economy to more private enterprise One-fifth of their production is exported

13 Economics OPEC: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
Created in 1960 Consists of 12 oil-producing countries Algeria Angola Ecuador Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela

14 OPEC Purpose of OPEC was to work together to regulate the supply and price of oil they exported to other countries Most of the member countries are located in SW Asia These countries decide how much oil they will produce which determines the price of oil When they produce less oil, prices go up. When they produce more, prices go down.

15 Trade Barriers Tariff Quota
A tax on imports Quota A limit on the amount of goods imported into a country during a certain period of time Purpose of both is to encourage consumers to purchase domestic goods Embargo Cuts off trade; usually used to put political pressure on a nation to force them to do something Quota

16 Trade Barriers Following the Persian Gulf War, the United Nations imposed an embargo against Iraq. The purpose was to restrict Iraq’s trade until it met UN requirements. Banned all trade and financial imports except for medicine and some food Led to food rationing and the alleged deaths of many Iraqi people, especially children, due to malnourishment and sickness

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