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Table of Contents – pages iv-v

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2 Table of Contents – pages iv-v
Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: Plants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit 9: Vertebrates Unit 10: The Human Body Table of Contents – pages iv-v

3 Table of Contents – pages iv-v
Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1: Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology Chapter 3: Communities and Biomes Chapter 4: Population Biology Chapter 5: Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Chapter 6: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7: A View of the Cell Chapter 8: Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9: Energy in a Cell Table of Contents – pages iv-v

4 Table of Contents – pages iv-v
Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10: Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11: DNA and Genes Chapter 12: Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13: Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14: The History of Life Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16: Primate Evolution Chapter 17: Organizing Life’s Diversity Table of Contents – pages iv-v

5 Table of Contents – pages iv-v
Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18: Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19: Protists Chapter 20: Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21: What Is a Plant? Chapter 22: The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23: Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24: Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages iv-v

6 Table of Contents – pages iv-v
Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25: What Is an Animal? Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27: Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28: Arthropods Chapter 29: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates Table of Contents – pages iv-v

7 Table of Contents – pages iv-v
Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30: Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31: Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32: Mammals Chapter 33: Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34: Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35: The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36: The Nervous System Chapter 37: Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development Chapter 39: Immunity from Disease Table of Contents – pages iv-v

8 Genetics Mendel and Meiosis DNA and Genes
Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Genetic Technology Unit Overview – pages

9 Chapter Contents – page viii
Chapter 13 Genetic Technology 13.1: Applied Genetics 13.1: Section Check 13.2: Recombinant DNA Technology 13.2: Section Check 13.3: The Human Genome 13.3: Section Check Chapter 13 Summary Chapter 13 Assessment Chapter Contents – page viii

10 You will summarize the steps used to engineer transgenic organisms.
What You’ll Learn You will evaluate the importance of plant and animal breeding to humans. You will summarize the steps used to engineer transgenic organisms. You will analyze how mapping the human genome is benefitting human life. Chapter Intro-page 336

11 13.1 Section Objectives – page 337
Predict the outcome of a test cross. Evaluate the importance of plant and animal breeding to humans. 13.1 Section Objectives – page 337

12 Section 13.1 Summary – pages 337 - 340
Selective Breeding From ancient times, breeders have chosen plants and animals with the most desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation. Breeders of plants and animals want to be sure that their populations breed consistently so that each member shows the desired trait. Section 13.1 Summary – pages

13 Section 13.1 Summary – pages 337 - 340
Selective Breeding The process of selective breeding requires time, patience, and several generations of offspring before the desired trait becomes common in a population. Increasing the frequency of desired alleles in a population is the essence of genetic technology. Section 13.1 Summary – pages

14 Section 13.1 Summary – pages 337 - 340
Inbreeding develops pure lines To make sure that breeds consistently exhibit a trait and to eliminate any undesired traits from their breeding lines, breeders often use the method of inbreeding. Inbreeding is mating between closely related individuals. It results in offspring that are homozygous for most traits. Section 13.1 Summary – pages

15 Section 13.1 Summary – pages 337 - 340
Inbreeding develops pure lines Inbreeding can bring out harmful, recessive traits because there is a greater chance that two closely related individuals both may carry a harmful recessive allele for the trait. Section 13.1 Summary – pages

16 Section 13.1 Summary – pages 337 - 340
Inbreeding develops pure lines Horses and dogs are two examples of animals that breeders have developed as pure breeds. Section 13.1 Summary – pages

17 Section 13.1 Summary – pages 337 - 340
Hybrids are usually bigger and better A hybrid is the offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait. Hybrids produced by crossing two purebred plants are often larger and stronger than their parents. Section 13.1 Summary – pages

18 Section 13.1 Summary – pages 337 - 340
Hybrids are usually bigger and better Many crop plants such as wheat, corn, and rice, and garden flowers such as roses and dahlias have been developed by hybridization. Section 13.1 Summary – pages

19 Section 13.1 Summary – pages 337 - 340
Determining Genotypes The genotype of an organism that is homozygous recessive for a trait is obvious to an observer because the recessive trait is expressed. However, organisms that are either homozygous dominant or heterozygous for a trait controlled by Mendelian inheritance have the same phenotype. Section 13.1 Summary – pages

20 Section 13.1 Summary – pages 337 - 340
Test crosses can determine genotypes One way to determine the genotype of an organism is to perform a test cross. A test cross is a cross of an individual of unknown genotype with an individual of known genotype. The pattern of observed phenotypes in the offspring can help determine the unknown genotype of the parent. Section 13.1 Summary – pages

21 Section 13.1 Summary – pages 337 - 340
Test crosses can determine genotypes What are the possible results of a test cross? If a known parent is homozygous recessive and an unknown parent is homozygous dominant for a trait, all of the offspring will be heterozygous and show the dominant trait. Section 13.1 Summary – pages

22 Section 13.1 Summary – pages 337 - 340
Test crosses can determine genotypes If the organism being tested is heterozygous, the expected 1:1 phenotypic ratio will be observed. If any of the offspring, have the undesired trait, the parent in question must be heterozygous. Section 13.1 Summary – pages

23 Section 13.1 Summary – pages 337 - 340
? x dd Test crosses can determine genotypes Homozygous x Homozygous dd Heterozygous x Homozygous dd DD d d Dd d d D Dd Dd D Dd Dd D Dd Dd d dd dd Offspring: all dominant Offspring: 1/2 dominant 1/2 recessive Dd Dd Dd dd Section 13.1 Summary – pages

24 Question 1 Increasing the frequency of desired alleles in a population is the goal of _______. A. genetic technology B. gene therapy C. polygenic inheritance D. chromosomal mutation The answer is A. FL: SC.H.3.4.6 Section 1 Check

25 Question 2 Inbreeding results in offspring that are _______.
A. mutations B. homozygous for most traits C. heterozygous for most traits D. mentally challenged The answer is B. Section 1 Check

26 Question 3 Why can inbreeding bring out harmful, recessive traits? Answer There is a greater chance that two closely related individuals both may carry a harmful recessive allele for the trait. Section 1 Check

27 Question 4 Answer Why is the carrier of a trait heterozygous?
The carrier of a trait does not express the trait, therefore, the carrier cannot be homozygous recessive. Also, the carrier could not be homozygous dominant because it would not possess the trait in question. Section 1 Check

28 13.2 Section Objectives – page 341
Summarize the steps used to engineer transgenic organisms. Give examples of applications and benefits of genetic engineering. 13.2 Section Objectives – page 341

29 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is a faster and more reliable method for increasing the frequency of a specific allele in a population. This method involves cutting—or cleaving—DNA from one organism into small fragments and inserting the fragments into a host organism of the same or a different species. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

30 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Genetic Engineering You also may hear genetic engineering referred to as recombinant (ree KAHM buh nunt) DNA technology. Recombinant DNA is made by connecting or recombining, fragments of DNA from different sources. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

31 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Transgenic organisms contain recombinant DNA Plants and animals that contain functional recombinant DNA from an organism of a different genus are known as transgenic organisms because they contain foreign DNA. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

32 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Transgenic organisms contain recombinant DNA The first step of the process is to isolate the foreign DNA fragment that will be inserted. The second step is to attach the DNA fragment to a carrier. The third step is the transfer into the host organism. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

33 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Restriction enzymes cleave DNA To isolate a DNA fragment, small pieces of DNA must be cut from a chromosome. There are hundreds of restriction enzymes; each can cut DNA at a specific point in a specific nucleotide sequence. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

34 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Restriction enzymes cleave DNA The same sequence of bases is found on both DNA strands, but in opposite orders. This arrangement is called a palindrome (PA luhn drohm). Palindromes are words or sentences that read the same forward and backward. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

35 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Restriction enzymes cleave DNA Some enzymes produce fragments in which the DNA is cut straight across both strands. These are called blunt ends. Other enzymes, such as the enzyme called EcoRI, cut palindromic sequences of DNA by unzipping them for a few nucleotides. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

36 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Restriction enzymes cleave DNA Section 13.2 Summary – pages

37 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Vectors transfer DNA Biological vectors include viruses and plasmids. A plasmid, is a small ring of DNA found in a bacterial cell. Click image to view movie Section 13.2 Summary – pages

38 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Vectors transfer DNA Two mechanical vectors carry foreign DNA into a cell’s nucleus. One, a micropipette, is inserted into a cell; the other is a microscopic metal bullet coated with DNA that is shot into the cell from a gene gun. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

39 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Insertion into a vector If a plasmid and foreign DNA have been cleaved with the same restriction enzyme, the ends of each will match and they will join together, reconnecting the plasmid ring. The foreign DNA is recombined into a plasmid or viral DNA with the help of a second enzyme. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

40 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Gene cloning After the foreign DNA has been inserted into the plasmid, the recombined DNA is transferred into a bacterial cell. An advantage to using bacterial cells to clone DNA is that they reproduce quickly; therefore, millions of bacteria are produced and each bacterium contains hundreds of recombinant DNA molecules. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

41 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Gene cloning Clones are genetically identical copies. Each identical recombinant DNA molecule is called a gene clone. Plasmids also can be used to deliver genes to animal or plant cells, which incorporate the recombinant DNA. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

42 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Gene cloning Each time the host cell divides it copies the recombinant DNA along with its own. The host cell can produce the protein encoded on the recombinant DNA. Using other vectors, recombinant DNA can be inserted into yeast, plant, and animal cells. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

43 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Gene cloning Foreign DNA (gene for human growth hormone) Recombined DNA Cleavage sites Recombined plasmid Bacterial chromosome E. coli Plasmid Human growth hormone Section 13.2 Summary – pages

44 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Cloning of animals So far, you have read about cloning one gene. For decades, scientists attempted to expand the technique from a gene to an entire animal. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

45 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Cloning of animals Although their techniques are inefficient, scientists are coming closer to perfecting the process of cloning animals. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

46 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Polymerase chain reaction In order to replicate DNA outside living organisms, a method called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed. This method uses heat to separate DNA strands from each other. An enzyme isolated from a heat-loving bacterium is used to replicate the DNA when the appropriate nucleotides are added in a PCR machine. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

47 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Polymerase chain reaction The machine repeatedly replicates the DNA, making millions of copies in less than a day. Because the machine uses heat to separate the DNA strands and cycles over and over to replicate the DNA, it is called a thermocycler. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

48 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Sequencing DNA In DNA sequencing, millions of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment are cloned using PCR. Then, the strands are separated from each other. The single-stranded fragments are placed in four different test tubes, one for each DNA base. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

49 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Sequencing DNA Each tube contains four normal nucleotides (A,C, G,T) and an enzyme that can catalyze the synthesis of a complementary strand. One nucleotide in each tube is tagged with a different fluorescent color. The reactions produce complementary strands of varying lengths. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

50 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Sequencing DNA These strands are separated according to size by gel electrophoresis (ih lek troh fuh REE sus), producing a pattern of fluorescent bands in the gel. The bands are visualized using a laser scanner or UV light. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

51 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Gel Electrophoresis Restriction enzymes are the perfect tools for cutting DNA. However, once the DNA is cut, a scientist needs to determine exactly what fragments have been formed. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

52 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Restriction enzymes Either one or several restriction enzymes is added to a sample of DNA. The enzymes cut the DNA into fragments. DNA fragments Section 13.2 Summary – pages

53 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
The gel With a consistency that is firmer than dessert gelatin, the gel is molded so that small wells form at one end. Gel Small amounts of the fragmented DNA are placed into these wells. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

54 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
An electric field Power source The gel is placed in a solution and an electric field is applied making one end of the gel positive and the other end negative. Negative end Positive end Section 13.2 Summary – pages

55 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
The fragments move The negatively charged DNA fragments travel toward the positive end. Completed gel Shorter fragments Longer fragments Section 13.2 Summary – pages

56 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
The fragments move The smaller the fragment, the faster it moves through the gel. The smallest fragments move the farthest from the well. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

57 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Applications of DNA Technology The main areas proposed for recombinant bacteria are in industry, medicine, and agriculture. Recombinant DNA in industry Many species of bacteria have been engineered to produce chemical compounds used by humans. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

58 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Recombinant DNA in industry Scientists have modified the bacterium E. coli to produce the expensive indigo dye that is used to color denim blue jeans. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

59 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Applications of DNA Technology The production of cheese, laundry detergents, pulp and paper production, and sewage treatment have all been enhanced by the use of recombinant DNA techniques that increase enzyme activity, stability, and specificity. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

60 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Recombinant DNA in medicine Pharmaceutical companies already are producing molecules made by recombinant DNA to treat human diseases. Recombinant bacteria are used in the production of human growth hormone to treat pituitary dwarfism. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

61 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Recombinant DNA in medicine Also, the human gene for insulin is inserted into a bacterial plasmid by genetic engineering techniques. Recombinant bacteria produce large quantities of insulin. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

62 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Transgenic animals Scientists can study diseases and the role specific genes play in an organism by using transgenic animals. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

63 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Transgenic animals Mouse chromosomes also are similar to human chromosomes. Scientists know the locations of many genes on mouse chromosomes. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

64 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Transgenic animals The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is another organism with well-understood genetics that is used for transgenic studies. A third animal commonly used for transgenic studies is the fruit fly. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

65 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Transgenic animals On the same farm in Scotland that produced the cloned sheep Dolly, a transgenic sheep was produced that contained the corrected human gene for hemophilia A. This human gene inserted into the sheep chromosomes allows the production of the clotting protein in the sheep’s milk. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

66 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Transgenic animals This farm also has produced transgenic sheep which produce a protein that helps lungs inflate and function properly. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

67 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Recombinant DNA in agriculture Recombinant DNA technology has been highly utilized in the agricultural and food industries. Crops have been developed that are better tasting, stay fresh longer, and are protected from disease and insect infestations. Section 13.2 Summary – pages

68 Section 13.2 Summary – pages 341 - 348
Recombinant DNA in agriculture The Most Common Genetically Modified (GM) Crops 150 140 Millions of hectares 7% 100 72 36% 50 34 25 16% 11% Soybeans Corn Cotton Canola Section 13.2 Summary – pages

69 Question 1 To create an organism that contains the DNA from both a horse and a zebra, would scientists use selective breeding or genetic engineering? Answer Scientists would have to use genetic engineering because selective breeding must occur between members of the same species. A horse and a zebra are members of different species. Section 2 Check

70 Question 2 Cut Why would enzymes that produce cut DNA with blunt ends NOT be effective in producing recombinant DNA? Cleavage Insertion Section 2 Check

71 Cut The DNA from each organism must have sticky, not blunt, ends so it can combine with the DNA of the other organism and form recombinant DNA. Cleavage Insertion Section 2 Check

72 Question 3 Which of the following is NOT a vector for DNA? A. viruses
B. plasmids C. micropipettes D. enzymes The answer is D. Section 2 Check

73 13.3 Section Objectives – page 349
Analyze how the effort to completely map and sequence the human genome will advance human knowledge. Predict future applications of the Human Genome Project. 13.3 Section Objectives – page 349

74 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome In 1990, scientists in the United States organized the Human Genome Project (HGP). It is an international effort to completely map and sequence the human genome, the approximately genes on the 46 human chromosomes. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

75 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome In February of 2001, the HGP published its working draft of the 3 billion base pairs of DNA in most human cells. The sequence of chromosomes 21 and 22 was finished by May 2000. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

76 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Linkage maps The genetic map that shows the relative locations of genes on a chromosome is called a linkage map. The historical method used to assign genes to a particular human chromosome was to study linkage data from human pedigrees. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

77 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Linkage maps Because humans have only a few offspring compared with the larger numbers of offspring in some other species, and because a human generation time is so long, mapping by linkage data is extremely inefficient. Biotechnology now has provided scientists with new methods of mapping genes. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

78 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Linkage maps A genetic marker is a segment of DNA with an identifiable physical location on a chromosome and whose inheritance can be followed. A marker can be a gene, or it can be some section of DNA with no known function. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

79 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Linkage maps Because DNA segments that are near each other on a chromosome tend to be inherited together, markers are often used as indirect ways of tracking the inheritance pattern of a gene that has not yet been identified, but whose approximate location is known. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

80 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Sequencing the human genome The difficult job of sequencing the human genome is begun by cleaving samples of DNA into fragments using restriction enzymes. Then, each individual fragment is cloned and sequenced. The cloned fragments are aligned in the proper order by overlapping matching sequences, thus determining the sequence of a longer fragment. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

81 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Applications of the Human Genome Project Improved techniques for prenatal diagnosis of human disorders, use of gene therapy, and development of new methods of crime detection are areas currently being researched. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

82 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Diagnosis of genetic disorders One of the most important benefits of the HGP has been the diagnosis of genetic disorders. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

83 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Diagnosis of genetic disorders The DNA of people with and without a genetic disorder is compared to find differences that are associated with the disorder. Once it is clearly understood where a gene is located and that a mutation in the gene causes the disorder, a diagnosis can be made for an individual, even before birth. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

84 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Gene therapy Individuals who inherit a serious genetic disorder may now have hope—gene therapy. Gene therapy is the insertion of normal genes into human cells to correct genetic disorders. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

85 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Gene therapy Trials that treat SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome) have been the most successful. In this disorder, a person’s immune system is shut down and even slight colds can be life-threatening. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

86 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Gene therapy In gene therapy for this disorder, the cells of the immune system are removed from the patient’s bone marrow, and the functional gene is added to them. The modified cells are then injected back into the patient. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

87 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Gene therapy Cell culture flask Add virus with functioning SCID gene Bone marrow cells Gene Hip Bone Bone marrow cell with integrated gene Section 13.3 Summary – pages

88 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
Gene therapy Other trials involve gene therapy for cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell anemia, hemophilia, and other genetic disorders It is hoped that in the next decade DNA technology that uses gene therapy will be developed to treat many different disorders. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

89 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
DNA fingerprinting DNA fingerprinting can be used to convict or acquit individuals of criminal offenses because every person is genetically unique. DNA fingerprinting works because no two individuals (except identical twins) have the same DNA sequences, and because all cells (except gametes) of an individual have the same DNA. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

90 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
DNA fingerprinting In a forensic application of DNA fingerprinting, a small DNA sample is obtained from a suspect and from blood, hair, skin, or semen found at the crime scene. The DNA, which includes the unique non-coding segments, is cut into fragments with restriction enzymes. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

91 Section 13.3 Summary – pages 349 - 353
DNA fingerprinting The fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis, then further analyzed. If the samples match, the suspect most likely is guilty. Section 13.3 Summary – pages

92 Question 1 A segment of DNA with an identifiable physical location on a chromosome and whose inheritance can be followed is a _______. A. genome B. genetic marker C. nitrogenous base D. linkage map The answer is B. Section 3 Check

93 Question 2 Why is mapping by linkage data inefficient in humans? Answer Mapping by linkage data is inefficient in humans because humans have only a few offspring and because a human generation is so long. Section 3 Check

94 Question 3 The insertion of normal genes into human cells to correct genetic disorders is called _______. A. DNA fingerprinting B. genetic engineering C. genome sequencing D. gene therapy The answer is D. FL: SC.H.3.4.6 Section 3 Check

95 Applied Genetics Test crosses determine the genotypes of individuals and the probability that offspring will have a particular allele. Plant and animal breeders selectively breed organisms with a desirable trait which increases the frequency of a desired allele in a population. Chapter Summary – 13.1

96 Recombinant DNA Technology
Scientists have developed methods to move genes from one species into another. These processes use restriction enzymes to cleave DNA into fragments and other enzymes to insert a DNA fragment into a plasmid or viral DNA. Transgenic organisms can make genetic products foreign to themselves using recombinant DNA. Chapter Summary – 13.2

97 Recombinant DNA Technology
Bacteria, plants, and animals have been genetically engineered to be of use to humans. Gene cloning can be done by inserting a gene into bacterial cells, which copy the gene when they reproduce, or by a technique called polymerase chain reaction. Many species of animals have been cloned; the first cloned mammal was a sheep. Chapter Summary – 13.2

98 The Human Genome The Human Genome Project, an international effort, has sequenced the chromosomal DNA of the human genome. Efforts are underway to determine the location for every gene. DNA fingerprinting can be used to identify individuals. Gene therapy technology can be used to treat genetic disorders. Chapter Summary – 13.3

99 Question 1 DNA fingerprinting is based on distinct combinations of patterns in DNA produced by _______. A. Noncoding DNA C. anticodons B. exons D. stop codons The answer is A. Chapter Assessment

100 Question 2 The human genome contains approximately ________ genes.
B. 3,500 C. 35,000 D. 23,000 The answer is C. Chapter Assessment

101 Question 3 What is the advantage to using bacterial cells for cloning DNA? Answer Bacterial cells reproduce quickly and can produce large quantities of the cloned DNA. Chapter Assessment

102 Question 4 Genetically identical copies of recombinant DNA are called _______. A. clones B. plasmids C. vectors D. hybrids The answer is A. Chapter Assessment

103 Question 5 The technique of using heat to separate strands of DNA is called _______. A. DNA sequencing B. gel electrophoresis C. polymerase chain reaction D. enzyme restriction The answer is C. Chapter Assessment

104 Question 6 How does PCR help doctors identify extremely small amount of HIV in blood? Answer The PCR method repeatedly replicates DNA, making millions of copies in less than a day. Doctors can more easily find and identify the increased quantities of DNA from the virus in the blood. FL: SC.H.3.4.6 Chapter Assessment

105 Question 7 Answer What is a live vector vaccine?
An antigen-coding gene from a disease-causing virus is inserted into a harmless carrier virus. When a vaccine made from the carrier virus is injected into a host, the virus replicates and in the process produces the antigen protein, causing an immune response. FL: SC.H.3.4.6 Chapter Assessment

106 Question 8 How is severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID) being treated with gene therapy? Answer Cells of the immune system are removed from the patient’s bone marrow, and the functional gene is added to them. FL: SC.H.3.4.6 Chapter Assessment

107 Question 9 Answer How does a DNA vaccine work?
DNA vaccines differ from other vaccines in that only the cloned segment of DNA that codes for a disease-causing antigen is injected into a host. The DNA is the vaccine. FL: SC.H.3.4.6 Chapter Assessment

108 Question 10 If a test cross is done using a known homozygous recessive parent for a trait, and all the offspring are carriers of the trait, the unknown parent must be ________. A. homozygous recessive B. homozygous dominant C. heterozygous D. phenotypically recessive The answer is A. Chapter Assessment

109 Digital Stock Horizons Companies PhotoDisc Tim Courlas Alton Biggs
Photo Credits Digital Stock Horizons Companies PhotoDisc Tim Courlas Alton Biggs Chapter Assessment

110 To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file.

111 End of Chapter 13 Show


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