2 Reinforcement Punishment Any object or event that strengthens or increases the frequency of a response that it follows.PunishmentIs the delivery of an unpleasant consequence following a response which decreases the frequency of the response that it follows.
3 Positive reinforcement increases the response rate Rat presses lever –Food is deliveredPositive punishment decreases the response rateRat presses lever-Gets a shockNegative reinforcement increases the response rateShock removedNegative punishment decreases the response rateFood is removed
4 Do you want to play a game? Get into pairsToss the coin. Best of five is the participantParticipant has one minute to throw as many balls into the bucket as possible. Partner to roll them back as quickly as possible.Every ball that goes in awards a lolly. The one with the most lollies gets a major prize.
5 Now swap Ex ball tossers get question sheet Ex ball returners to strike a pose – hands above head and one leg with foot on other leg’s knee. You can only relax once you get 10 questions correct. You may pass if you wish.
6 Which was which? Which group received positive reinforcement? What was it?Which group received negative reinforcement?
7 Copy into booksA positive reinforcer is a stimulus that strengthens the frequency of a desired response, by providing a pleasant consequence.A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that when reduced, removed or prevented, strengthens or increases the frequency of the desired response.
8 Learning Activity 10.13 p 488 Answer questions 2, 4a, 6c, 8, 9 Ok, so who wants to play another game?Maybe Leah or Caitlyn?
10 Try thisEngage a friend or relative in conversation for 20 minutes or so. Choose a particular movement made by your subject and then during the conversation, reward them with a nod or a smile each time the movement is made. Notice if it made any difference to the frequency of the movement.
11 Factors influencing the effectiveness of reinforcement Order of Presentation: Reinforcer is given after the desired responseTiming: Reinforcer is given immediately after desired response has occurredAppropriateness: To be a reinforcer it must provide a pleasing consequence for the recipient
12 Poor WoofyWoofy was a dog who belonged to Pavlov. Woofy was allowed inside but lately, Woofy had not been his normal self and had been doing his business on the floor. When Pavlov accidentally stepped in the mess a few hours later, he sent poor Woof outside in the cold pouring rain. Give an example of how Pavlov could solve this dilemma by:
13 a/ Positive reinforcement b/ Negative reinforcement c/ Punishment d/ Order of presentation e/ Timing f/ Appropriateness
14 a/ Positive reinforcement Give Woofy a biscuit every time he goes to the door to indicate he wants to do his business or go outside.b/ Negative reinforcementLet Woofy back inside whenever he indicates he needs to go outside to do his business (Removal of cold weather)c/ PunishmentSmack Woofy every time he does his business insided/ Order of presentationGive reinforcement after he does his business in the correct waye/ TimingReinforcement given straight after behaviour – Pavlov stood in it hours later, Woofy was confused WHY he has been sent outside.f/ AppropriatenessWoofy loves to be inside and loves biscuits