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Reinforcement and punishment

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Presentation on theme: "Reinforcement and punishment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reinforcement and punishment

2 Reinforcement Punishment
Any object or event that strengthens or increases the frequency of a response that it follows. Punishment Is the delivery of an unpleasant consequence following a response which decreases the frequency of the response that it follows.

3 Positive reinforcement increases the response rate
Rat presses lever – Food is delivered Positive punishment decreases the response rate Rat presses lever- Gets a shock Negative reinforcement increases the response rate Shock removed Negative punishment decreases the response rate Food is removed

4 Do you want to play a game?
Get into pairs Toss the coin. Best of five is the participant Participant has one minute to throw as many balls into the bucket as possible. Partner to roll them back as quickly as possible. Every ball that goes in awards a lolly. The one with the most lollies gets a major prize.

5 Now swap Ex ball tossers get question sheet
Ex ball returners to strike a pose – hands above head and one leg with foot on other leg’s knee. You can only relax once you get 10 questions correct. You may pass if you wish.

6 Which was which? Which group received positive reinforcement?
What was it? Which group received negative reinforcement?

7 Copy into books A positive reinforcer is a stimulus that strengthens the frequency of a desired response, by providing a pleasant consequence. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that when reduced, removed or prevented, strengthens or increases the frequency of the desired response.

8 Learning Activity 10.13 p 488 Answer questions 2, 4a, 6c, 8, 9
Ok, so who wants to play another game? Maybe Leah or Caitlyn?

9 I He She You They

10 Try this Engage a friend or relative in conversation for 20 minutes or so. Choose a particular movement made by your subject and then during the conversation, reward them with a nod or a smile each time the movement is made. Notice if it made any difference to the frequency of the movement.

11 Factors influencing the effectiveness of reinforcement
Order of Presentation: Reinforcer is given after the desired response Timing: Reinforcer is given immediately after desired response has occurred Appropriateness: To be a reinforcer it must provide a pleasing consequence for the recipient

12 Poor Woofy Woofy was a dog who belonged to Pavlov. Woofy was allowed inside but lately, Woofy had not been his normal self and had been doing his business on the floor. When Pavlov accidentally stepped in the mess a few hours later, he sent poor Woof outside in the cold pouring rain. Give an example of how Pavlov could solve this dilemma by:

13 a/ Positive reinforcement b/ Negative reinforcement c/ Punishment d/ Order of presentation e/ Timing f/ Appropriateness

14 a/ Positive reinforcement
Give Woofy a biscuit every time he goes to the door to indicate he wants to do his business or go outside. b/ Negative reinforcement Let Woofy back inside whenever he indicates he needs to go outside to do his business (Removal of cold weather) c/ Punishment Smack Woofy every time he does his business inside d/ Order of presentation Give reinforcement after he does his business in the correct way e/ Timing Reinforcement given straight after behaviour – Pavlov stood in it hours later, Woofy was confused WHY he has been sent outside. f/ Appropriateness Woofy loves to be inside and loves biscuits

15 Homework Punishment sheet L.A questions 3a, 4, 6, 8b, 9

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