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Sharynne McLeod, PhD Professor of Speech and Language Acquisition, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst NSW Department of Education and Communities Rural.

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Presentation on theme: "Sharynne McLeod, PhD Professor of Speech and Language Acquisition, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst NSW Department of Education and Communities Rural."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sharynne McLeod, PhD Professor of Speech and Language Acquisition, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst NSW Department of Education and Communities Rural and Distance Education Relate, 8 March, 2012

2 Yamandhu marang? Are you well? Ngawa baladhu marang. Yes I'm well.

3 Unless otherwise acknowledged, images within this presentation are from Microsoft Word Clip Art or have been used with permission

4  Acquiring their first language is the most impressive intellectual feat many people will ever perform (Miller & Gildea, 1987)

5 Communication  Language Comprehension and expression Written, signed and spoken  Speech Articulation/phonology (speech sounds) Voice Fluency/stuttering  Hearing

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7 Nilsson, L. (1990). A child is born. New York: Dell Publishing

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9  Stage 1 – Laying the foundation 0 – 1;0 years  Stage 2 – Becoming a word user 1;0 – 2;0 years  Stage 3 – Mastering elements of speech and language 2;0 – 5;0 years  Stage 4 – Mastering later speech and language elements and literacy 6;0+ years (Bleile, 2003)

10 Newborns  Sight focuses best at 22cm ie the distance of mother’s eyes during feeding  Sound hears best within frequency range of human voice Expresses needs with reflexive crying ie vocalizing  Demonstrates preference for human voice and human face

11  One-week-olds begin to imitate gross hand gestures mouth opening tongue protrusions  Two-weeks-old distinguishes mother from stranger  Three-weeks-old smiles in response to social stimulation (McCormick & Shiefelbusch, 1990)

12  Crying  Gurgling (0-8 weeks) = not in distress Consonant- and vowel-like Trills, raspberries & clicks  Cooing (6/ weeks) Predominantly vowel-like May involve back consonants

13  Vocal play (16-30 weeks) Syllable-like vocalisations  Babbling (31-50 weeks) e.g., [baba], [gugu] Series of consonant and vowel-like elements

14  First words and first steps at approx. 12 months  50 words at approx. 18 months  Two words together by 2 years

15  Representative early words (mum)(dad) no more all gone car bye-bye hot doggyjuice water dirty kittyshoeup hi ballhatthat milk noseeatdo eyegobaby i.e. toys, people, pets, food, clothing, actions & routines “dance” the most commonly known word in the Infants’ Lives in Childcare Project

16 Agent + action  Mummy run Action + object  Blow bubble Agent + object  Mummy cup Entity + attribute  Dog big Possessor + possession  Mummy sock

17  Sentence forms Questions Negatives  Grammatical structures present tense (-ing) prepositions (on, in, under) Past tense (goed, runned)  Conversation  Narratives (stories)

18  Early 8 [ m, b, y, n, w, d, p, h ]  Middle 8 [ t, ng, k, g, f, v, ch, j ]  Late 8 [ sh, th, s, z, th, l, r, zh ] (Shriberg, Kwiatkowski, Gruber 1994)

19  English has vowels  Greek has 5 vowels  English has 24 consonants  Finnish has 13 consonants  Sesotho has 40 consonants  English and Korean do not use tones  Cantonese and Norwegian are tone languages

20 PRESCHOOL  Topics: here and now  Contextual  Emphasis on talking  Genres - personal and shared experiences  Gesture conveys meaning SCHOOL  Topics: there and then  Decontextualised  Emphasis on listening  Genres - explaining discussing, debating  Reading and writing conveys meaning

21  Adult structured and initiated  Adults use high levels of questioning  Adults already know the answers  Use language to talk about language

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23  Part of their speech and language development is innate  Part of it is learned through the modelling of people around them Parents, family and teachers are young children’s main speech and language models

24  pitch elevation  greater use of intonation/ pause  highly intelligible  short, simple sentences  small core vocabulary  related to here and now  redundancy  adult ‘interprets’ and responds to child’s ‘communication’ (e.g., burps) to provide experience of being a speaker

25  See the dog?  Little dog.  Nice dog.  Pat dog.  Can you pat dog?  Nice dog.  Do you like dog?  Uh-huh. Nice dog.  Oooh dog lick icecream…

26 1. Modelling Self-talk  Talk about what you are doing yourself Parallel talk  Talk about what the child is doing 2. Expand their sentences  Child: Daddy eat  Adult: Daddy is eating his lunch

27  Look at books  Read books  Talk about books  Rhyme  Listen for sounds (I spy)

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29  Procedures  Narratives  Arguments  Descriptions  Explanations

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31 1. Specific learning difficulties17.9% 2. Communication disorders13.0% 3. Behavioural/emotional difficulty 9.2% 4. English as a second or other language8.2% 5. Early achievers/advanced learners 7.3% 6. Physical/medical disability 1.5% 7. Intellectual disability1.4% 8. Hearing impairment1.0% 9. Visual impairment0.2% TOTAL36.6% McLeod & McKinnon (2007). International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders

32  Being a male 2:1 ratio of boys to girls  Having a history of hearing difficulties  Having a positive family history of speech, language and/or literacy difficulties

33  Be concerned when A baby is not babbling A 1-year-old has not said single words A 2-year-old is not putting two words together A three-year-old is not using some grammar such as –ing, -ed, -s (plurals) Any child is not interacting at a similar level to his/her peers

34  Be concerned when A baby is not babbling Between the ages 2-4 sounds are not being developed in this general order:  Early 8 [m, b, y, n, w, d, p, h]  Middle 8 [t, ng, k, g, f, v, ch, j]  Late 8 [sh, th, s, z, th, l, r, zh]  (Shriberg, Kwiatkowski, Gruber 1994) A 4-year-old is not intelligible (they still may have a few sounds such as s, r, and th incorrect but their speech can be understood)

35  Be concerned when you hear a stutter See a speech pathologist before 4½ years old 90% of preschool children no longer stutter after 22 clinic visits (Onslow, 2005) Spontaneous recovery is 30% more likely if the stutterer is a girl and stuttering has occurred for less than 3 weeks  What to do Encourage “smooth speech” If you hear a stutter, say “Whoops, there was a bumpy word, say it again” Contact the Australian Stuttering Research Centre

36  Be concerned when a child  regularly looses his/her voice  has a voice that is husky, croaky  has a voice that is too high/low  has a voice that is too nasalized

37  Infant newborn hearing screening  Most common type of hearing impairment Called otitis media (OM) or glue ear Caused by middle ear infections Most young children have incidences of OM. May need antibiotics or grommets IMPORTANT: Many times this is undetected, and children may present as inattentive, and may inappropriately be labeled as misbehaving, when in fact they have not heard what they were required to do

38  Your local speech pathologist Community Health Centre Private speech pathologists  NSW Centre for Effective Reading Tolland Public School (Wagga), Buninyong Public School (Dubbo), Royal Far West School (Manly, Sydney), Palm Avenue School (Sydney – previously Dalwood Assessment Centre), Child Development Unit (Westmead)  Australian Stuttering Research Centre

39  Hello Campaign (UK)  Resources for parents sources-for-parents.aspx  Videos Overview of children with speech, language, and communication needs  Children talk about life at school 

40  Speech Pathology Australia  Dr Caroline Bowen’s website therapy.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=17&Itemid=11 9  American Speech-Language-Hearing Association  Canadian government website Babies  Preschoolers  px

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44 Sharynne McLeod, PhD Professor of Speech and Language Acquisition, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst NSW Department of Education and Communities Rural and Distance Education Relate, 8 March, 2012


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