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Www.monash.edu.au IMS5401 Web-based Systems Development Topic 3: Development for the web 3(d) User Interaction.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.monash.edu.au IMS5401 Web-based Systems Development Topic 3: Development for the web 3(d) User Interaction."— Presentation transcript:

1 IMS5401 Web-based Systems Development Topic 3: Development for the web 3(d) User Interaction

2 2 Agenda 1.From interface design to interaction design 2.Guidelines and processes for interaction design 3.Specialised usability and interaction issues 4.Conflict and compromise in interaction design

3 From interface design to interaction design History Human factors and ergonomics Screen design Interface design HCI Aims of HCI Safety Utility Effectiveness Efficiency Usability Appeal

4 4 Fundamental issues in interaction design Human senses and perception What do we see/(hear)? How do we connect/relate things we see and hear? Human cognition and memory How do we interpret what we see/hear? What do we retain and recall of what we see/hear? Patterns/metaphors/mental models Focus on functional elements (form vs function) User-centred design: What does my user see/hear? (not what do I see/hear)

5 5 ‘New’ issues for web-based interaction design Users and the nature of their use User motivation (do you want to change it)? Range of user types and experiences? Frequency/purpose of site usage? The web as a medium Data-oriented vs page-oriented design Forms of representation – numeric/text to multimedia Design technology – browsers, HTML, scripts, etc The development environment User-developer relationship?

6 6 Scope of interaction design User interaction with site may be affected by all design elements Content (quantity, type, form, etc) Layout and organisation of content (site structure, page structure, etc) Appearance and graphic design (fonts, colours, styles, etc) Architecture and navigation Contribution of design elements to user interaction is specific to site type, site purpose, and site user

7 Guidelines and processes for interaction design Interaction design has many aspects, many of which are highly specialised Importance of interaction design and its different aspects varies enormously from function to function (eg games design as an extreme: function= interaction design) Extensive (and expanding) literature on each of these aspects Some “gurus” in particular aspects of interaction design

8 8 Some gurus of aspects of interaction design Visual representation of information - Edward Tufte Design principles - Donald Norman Computer interface design - Ben Shneiderman Web site graphic design style - David Siegel, Lynda Weinman Web site usability - Jakob Nielsen Web site architecture and navigation - Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville Which guru should you follow? Depends on your purpose and the particular aspect of interaction design which matters

9 9 Key basic elements of interaction design process Understanding the users and what they want Developing alternative designs Prototyping designs Evaluating designs Iterative development

10 10 Interaction design methods Still not much around Ideas/approaches tend to be biased towards the site purpose (and the relevant guru) See references for examples You may find others you like (better?)

11 Specialised usability and interaction issues Does your site have to work with special types of audiences with particular characteristics? Some common specialised audiences: People with physical problems with interaction Internationalised or globalised audience Inexperienced audiences Personalised audiences

12 12 Designing for physical limitations or disabilities Common types of disability: Blindness, limited vision, colour blindness Limited mobility Deafness Design considerations User comprehension of content Facilities for user input and control Guidelines W3C

13 13 Designing for global audiences Issues with content Making the site content fit with local needs and customs (dates, times, places, currency, people, relevance, etc) Issues with language and layout Language and meaning Fluency, expressions and idiom Translations and multi-lingual sites Issues with colours, icons, images Meaning and symbolism Internationalisation versus localisation

14 14 Designing for inexperienced audiences Who are they likely to be and what will they want? Site content - how familiar? Web conventions and standards - how self- explanatory? Guidance and direction Help and explanations

15 15 Designing for personalised audiences Personalising the interface and the content - how important? Finding out about the user - direct methods Finding out about the user - indirect methods (cookies, etc) Establishing trust - user identification and privacy issues Conversational interfaces(?)

16 Conflict and compromise in interaction design Conflicting needs for web site interaction design arise from the blend of: The amount of information a site contains The range of users a site attracts The variety of information purposes a site supports Any interaction design solution (content, style, architecture) must normally be a compromise between these conflicting needs (Note difference to traditional interface design)

17 17 Design compromises and user needs How does a designer decide where the compromises need to be made? Which information comes first? Which user group comes first? Which information use comes first? Good design involves identifying and articulating the conflicts and establishing a basis for deciding on the trade-offs

18 18 User profiles as a basis for determining design trade-offs User profiling is a technique used to help articulate design needs and priorities Concept originally comes from graphic design Aims to identify and describe the main ‘typical’ users, information needs and usage patterns which the site aims to support Use these as the basis for identifying conflicting design needs and deciding what compromises have to be made

19 19 Building user profiles Develop outlines of key characteristics of the main user groups for the site Typically expressed as descriptions of imaginary individuals representing key user groups Characteristics may relate to things such as: personal attributes (age, gender, income, job, etc) preferences (tastes, attitudes, etc), life experiences (maturity, interests, etc), specific information needs and interests usage patterns for information needs Use market research techniques (focus groups, etc) to develop and test

20 20 Examples of user profiles: Monash or SIMS web sites Who are the ‘typical’ users? Categories of students, etc What are their ‘typical’ information needs? Types of information needed, etc What are their ‘typical’ usage patterns? Time/frequency of usage, etc How do they ‘typically’ like that information to be presented? Style, structure, architecture, etc See tute exercise

21 21 Using user profiles Profiles are used by designers to: Identify the site design features which are likely to appeal to each user; In cases of conflict, decide which user/usage pattern is most important Develop storyboards for each user – tracking how they will travel through the site Identify points of commonality and difference Determine design compromises as required Test against typical ‘real’ users

22 22 Creativity and compromise ‘Standardisation’ (‘commodification’) of web site design is a controversial topic in interaction design Creative designers (form-oriented) hate compromise which destroys design elegance Functional designers hate disfunctional design which spoils user interaction Will standards kill web design? (or will non- standard designs kill web applications?) Return to Sydney Opera House/Federation Square/etc


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