2AURAL/ORAL SKILLS Repetition Listening for gist Listening for detailed info’ (+ info’ gap)Role plays (& task-based activitiesDialogues (& pair work)Structured dialogues and discussionsTape recorders and videosDrillsChainingPositive feedbackYour own experience of learning a new language and what classroom strategies suited you? INDIVIDUALWhy should we use a variety of classroom strategies to help ls. Develop their linguistic skills and knowledge? PAIRSOur strategies aren’t always parallel to those of our ls. – think of examples GROUPWhat is the difference in the risk involved in speaking in front of the entire class compared with speaking in a small group? Could a small group pose a greater risk sometimes? What effect might this element of risk have on ls’ verbal participation?Information gap activity with envelopes in 3 pairsYour own experience of learning a new language and what classroom strategies suited you
3READING AND WRITING SKILLS Genre analysisModel textsWriting frames and modellingProofreading and peer editingNote-takingMatching exercises (& clause structures)SequencingCloze exercises3 pairs: a recipe, a narrative and an advert
4Reading & writing skills (ctd.) Process writingDARTS and independent readingPlanning and structuringPositive feedback(Other tools/processes: ICT, journals/diaries, writing messages, co-operative writing, shared reading, project work etc..)
5English Language Use (Speaking and Listening) Listen critically and sensitively and respond appropriately:Recognising speaker’s intention (info’ gap)Aware of interlocutor’s reactions & adjusting speech accordinglyRecognising other people’s feelings & opinions & responding sensitivelyAppropriate questioning techniques and responsesWe’ll go through it then look at a video of some ESOL ls. To see how they rate, at different levels, on all these components of S&L
6In conversation, contribute own points & enable others to contribute Using linguistic and paralinguistic cues to signal ends of utterancesRecognising such cues from othersAllowing and encouraging others to take turns and make contributionsi.e., Facilitate conversation to ensure effective participation of those involvedThink of examples when communication broke down because of mistakes with cues and turn taking? PAIRS
7Speak clearly & articulately Adjusting volume, speed and pitch of voice to the setting, role and number of listenersProjecting voice without strainUsing stress and intonation to indicate main pointsWatching videos, listening to tapes, TV programmes etc.. Can aid develop these skills? What other ways can you think of for teaching Speaking to individuals, small groups and larger groups? What are the appropriate techniques for each?
8Convey complex information & arguments effectively Organise ideas logically and link them coherently following English academic conventions:Using grammatical and phonological features to mark significant pointsStructuring utterances and/or a presentation with appropriate discourse markers
9Non-verbal communication To enhance effectiveness of oral communication exchanges and respond to its use by others via:Eye contactTurn-takingFacial expressionGesturesPosture