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A History of Immigration to Victoria. Victoria’s Inhabitants before European Settlement Aborigines lived in Australia tens of thousand of years before.

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Presentation on theme: "A History of Immigration to Victoria. Victoria’s Inhabitants before European Settlement Aborigines lived in Australia tens of thousand of years before."— Presentation transcript:

1 A History of Immigration to Victoria

2 Victoria’s Inhabitants before European Settlement Aborigines lived in Australia tens of thousand of years before Europeans arrived. The Aborigines in Victoria had many difficult set of languages, trading roots, tribal alliances, beliefs and social customs. Social customs included things like superstitions and burial rites. The Aboriginal tribe around New Gisborne was the Wurundjeri tribe. They are part of the Kulin Nation. The other tribes that are in this nation include: The Bunurung or Boonerwrung People, the Wathaurrung People, the Taungurong People, and the Dja Dja Wurrung or Jaara People.

3 The First Fleet The First Fleet left Great Britain on 13 th May 1787. Their captain was Arthur Phillip. There were 11 ships. Two were Royal Navy vessels, three were store ships, and six were convict transports (1000 convicts, marines, and seamen). It took them approximately 252 days to get to Australia. They sailed southwest to Rio de Janeiro, then east to Cape Town and via the Great Southern Ocean to Botany Bay on January 26 th 1788.

4 The Potato Famine The Potato Famine was a time in the history of Ireland. The landowners owned the cows, so the Irish tenants depended on potatoes. Then in 1845 a fungus attacked the crops. It ate the roots and leaves of the potatoes. It didn’t only affect Ireland. It also happened in Wales, Scotland, and Cornwall. About 1 million died of hunger. Australia was a place of opportunities for a better life including food and employment. Most immigrants to Australia at the time were from Anglo-Celtic backgrounds.

5 The Gold Rush The Gold Rush started in July 1851 and ended in the late 1860’s. Most immigrants migrating from Britain travelled to Melbourne because of this. Thousands came in search for that one mineral – gold. Houses and hotels were jam packed. Wharves were congested with ships. Very few women were digging, so most of them cooked, washed clothes, sang and danced for the men. By 1861 the population of Melbourne had risen to 125,000.

6 White Australia Policy 1901 The White Australia Policy was made up of a set of rules for some countries in Europe and Britain to migrate to Australia. In 1901 98% of people were European and of Caucasian race. They lived by the laws of Britain. The government of Australia wanted to keep it this way. However, in the 1850’s Chinese people came to look for gold. So, by 1901 Australia tried to stop anymore Chinese people coming into the country. So, the government introduced the dictation test. If you couldn't speak, write, and read English you weren’t allowed into Australia.

7 White Australia Policy 1925 In 1925 Australia’s Prime Minister Stanley Bruce agreed with White Australia Policy. He used this policy during his 1925 election campaign. He said that we should continue to have this policy within Australia. He also said that he would do anything for it to remain. In 1975 the Racial Discrimination Act (Cth) was passed by the Australian Parliament. It effectively ended the White Australia Policy. The Act allowed Asian refugees into Australia from the Vietnam War.

8 “Populate or Perish” In WWII Australia’s population dropped. Australians were getting killed at war. Arthur Calwell, Minister of Immigration at the time, said that Australia must “populate or perish”. This is because the Japanese wanted to invade Australia. To make this easier, they wanted to land at the highest bit of Australia where there weren’t many people. Doing this, they could work their way down and capture Canberra. This, however, was never attempted to the relief of Australians. At the time they became friends with the US in case there was an invasion. As you can imagine, the US had a strong military. After the war there were migration programs between Australia and Britain and during this time Australia’s population rose. The White Australia Policy was still in place.

9 The Great Depression The US Stock Market fell in 1929. Lots of people lost their jobs, and so they became homeless and poor. Between 1929 and 1932 the Depression got worse. At the time Herbert Hoover was the president of the United States. Many people blamed him. The people voted for a new president. His name was Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He helped a lot of people to get through the Depression with new programs and laws. One of them was the Civilian Conservation Corps or CCC. They put young men to work. They got free food, shelter, and 1 dollar a week. These programs that existed in the US didn’t exist it Britain and Ireland. So this is why many people migrated to Australia from the British Isles.

10 World War 2 World War 2 started in 1939 and ended in 1945. Germany, having been defeated in World War 1, had to pay money for causing the conflict. This made it very difficult for Germans, so they voted Adolf Hitler as their leader in 1933. There were two sides of the world, the axis and the allies. The axis included of Germany, Italy and Japan. Their leaders were Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and Emperor Hirohito. The Allies included countries like the USA, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, and Australia. Their leaders were Franklin D. Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, Charles de Gaulle, and John Curtin. Approximately 73 million people died. Many Jews and other Europeans migrated after WWII to Australia, due to destruction in their own countries.

11 “Ten Pound Poms” “Ten Pound Poms” is the name for British migrants who came by boat to Australia under the assisted migration scheme. This was called this because migrants had to pay £10 (ten pounds) to get there. Children were free. Poms are the name given to British people. Over one million migrants took advantage of the scheme. In 1973 the price was £75 per family. It wasn’t only the British that migrated. It was also other countries from Europe. These included Turkey, West Germany, Italy, Greece, and the Netherlands. Some familiar people who have participated in this scheme include: Julia Gillard (Former Prime Minister), Tony Abbott (Current Prime Minister), and the Bee Gees (the Gibb brothers were a band).

12 Refugees A refugee is a person who is entering another country legally. The reasons for this include war, famine, natural disasters, and unemployment. They are scared and fearful of their country. They generally have a passport or some kind of identification. They normally come on a plane. Some countries where refugees came from are Afghanistan, Bosnia, and people from Europe of Jewish decent. An asylum seeker is a person who is entering another country illegally. Asylum means safety. They leave for the same reasons as refugees. They usually don’t have many things with them and are urgent with their departure. Asylum seekers who have attempted to come to Australia have come by boat. Many have not made it. The laws for allowing a refugee and an asylum seeker into Australia are quite different.

13 Resources Victoria’s Inhabitants before European Settlement: Wikipedia - and and The First Fleet: Simple English Wikipedia: Wikipedia: The Potato Famine: Wikipedia - The Gold Rush: Museum Victoria - Marvellous Melbourne: Kid Cyber - White Australia Policy 1901: Museum Victoria - federation/infosheets/white-australia/ federation/infosheets/white-australia/ Wikipedia -

14 Resources White Australia Policy 1925: Wikipedia - Election Speeches - stanley-bruce and stanley-bruce stanley-bruce stanley-bruce “Populate or Perish”: Wikipedia - orld_War_II and Mrs Kane! orld_War_II The Great Depression: Simple English Wikipedia - World War 2: Simple English Wikipedia -

15 Resources “Ten Pound Poms”: Wikipedia - Immigration Museum - questions/ten-pound-poms/ questions/ten-pound-poms/ Refugees: Wikipedia - Refugee Council of Australia - def.php def.php

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