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KEY KNOWLEDGE KEY SKILLSTraining principles including intensity, duration, frequency, overload, specificity, individuality, diminishing returns, variety, maintenance and detraining A variety of fitness training methods including continuous, interval, fartlek, circuit, weight/resistance, flexibility, plyometrics, speed, swiss ball and core strength training to improve aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, speed, flexibility and muscular power. Plan, participate in and critique a six week training schedule that displays correct training principle application to appropriate training methods in an effort to maintain and/or improve designated health related fitness components Participate in, analyse and report on activities designed to investigate pre and post-test fitness levels. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
© Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Training Principles – SIDOF and othersSpecificity Intensity Duration Overload Frequency Detraining (reversibility) Maintenance Individuality Diminishing returns Variety. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Specificity During training, activities must replicate the:energy system usage work-to-rest ratio fitness components major muscles and movements. Called upon during competition/performance © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Intensity Refers to the level of exertion applied during training – simply, how hard training is performed at! Intensity can be determined by using: Heart rate monitors Accelerometers GPS units Percentage of VO2 maximum (laboratory) or – the easiest of all – Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (e.g. Borg’s scale). Sometimes activities lasting less than 30 seconds performed at maximal intensity will not register as being at maximal levels using any of the monitors listed above because the time is insufficient for the cardiovascular system to be activated to maximal levels. This is where the RPE comes in handy for short training efforts calling upon the two anaerobic energy systems. The monitors listed above are better suited to aerobic training. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Intensity and 'training zones'© Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Duration This can refer to:length of a training program (3 months, 12 months, etc.) length of the training session ( 20 minutes, 90 minutes, etc.) minimum amount of time required for training adaptations to occur (flexibility can improve in a couple of weeks, muscular power and strength need at least 2 months and aerobic capacity needs a minimum of 3–4 months) amount of work performed during training, not considering rest periods (particularly relevant to interval training). Periodisation is simply organising a training program into manageable blocks of time that include tapering/ unloading (reducing training volumes) and peaking to ensure prime physiological and psychological states for major events. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Overload This means placing the body under new stress (loads) after it has adjusted to previous loads in an effort to brig about improvements. Overload should only: occur once training becomes 'easier' and thus signal adjustment/adaptation has occurred and it’s time to move on (it does not occur on a weekly basis!) involve one training parameter/principle be in the range of 2–10% or risk overtraining and injury. When overload is applied, appropriate and adequate recovery is critical to ensure adaptations occur fully and quickly. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Frequency Improvements are linked to three sessions per week.= the number of training sessions undertaken in a week Improvements are linked to three sessions per week. Maintenance of components, energy systems and adaptations is linked to two sessions per week In most cases, performers will only do 1 session per day, however as they become more experienced or more elite they are better able to schedule recovery sessions and may increase the number of sessions per week without risking overtraining e.g.– marathon runners training every day (sometimes twice per day) – they build into their program 'easier' sessions that are often referred to as 'recovery runs' resistance training may start out working the entire body on three days/sessions per week and progress to split routines, working two different muscle groups twice per week for a total of four sessions. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Detraining This is sometimes referred to as reversibilityDetraining occurs when training ceases (injury, illness, training break) and sees a rapid return to pre-training levels. Adaptations are reversed a lot quicker than it takes to see them accumulate! NB – Detraining occurs quickest in people with immobilisation injuries and hence the need to rehabilitation during recovery from injury/surgery. During 'off-season' blocks of a training year, athletes will undergo a maintenance routine and train TWICE per week in an effort to avoid detraining and loose fitness gains. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Individuality Everyone is different (age, gender, fitness levels, genetic predisposition, adaptive responses, skills, levels of motivation and experience) and thus it is important that a training program be 'tailored' to suit the individual’s needs. Tailoring a training program might be very difficult or impracticable where limited funding or limited coaching/training support is available, e.g. A local football or netball club with one coach and every player does the same training. Elite athletes/team players undertake whole team training to develop skills, set plays, etc., but have individualised supplementary physiological training which is tailored to their ever changing fitness profile and needs. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Diminishing returns Everyone has a 'pre-programmed' genetic potential for fitness. An untrained person will show greater initial improvements in response to training than their more trained counterparts. As a performer gets closer to their potential, their rate of improvement slows. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Variety Variety is all about introducing changes to a training program by incorporating different training stimuli whilst still keeping the training sessions specific to game demands. Variety is useful in renewing training motivation, introducing new interest and stressing muscles in new ways to elicit new adaptations Examples: runners may choose different terrains – track, road, beach, forests a bench press may be replaced with dumbbell 'flys‘. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Training sequences Training logs outlining the physiological and psychological states before, during and after training are vital when reviewing a program and looking for signs of overtraining as well as having reference points to make modifications/improvements. Warm ups last approx 8–10 min (or until light sweating occurs) start with light aerobic work and gradually increase in intensity involve actions that replicate those that are about to be performed in training/ competition should include dynamic stretching /movements specific to the activity about to be performed need to consider attainment of optimal arousal levels. Cool downs often involve the same muscle actions used in training at reduced intensities prolong EPOC to facilitate removal of metabolic by-products reduce future DOMS (delayed onset of muscle soreness) are the best time to perform stretching/flexibility work due to decreased joint viscosity and warm soft tissue temperatures. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Training methods should be chosen because of their specific ability to improve fitness components and energy systems. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Interval training has periods of work followed by periods of rest, depending on the main energy system involved to make training specific: Long Interval Primarily trains = Aerobic energy system, but also some LA system benefit Work : rest = 1 : 1 Intensity = 75-85% HR max Duration = 1 4 minutes Recommended rest = 1 4 minutes (same as work period) Commonly used for = team sports with high aerobic base; 800m 3,000 m track events; 100 m 800 m swimming events Intermediate Interval Primarily trains = LA system, but also some aerobic energy system benefit Work : rest = 1 : 2 or 1 : 3 Intensity = 85+ % HR max Duration = 15 seconds 1 minute Recommended rest = 45 seconds 2/3 minutes Commonly used for = team sports which have frequent burst of anaerobic efforts lasting 5–10 seconds; 200m 1,500 m track events; 25 m 100 m swimming events Short Interval Primarily trains = ATP–PC & LA systems Work : rest = 1 : 4 or 1 : 5 Intensity = maximal Duration = 5 – 15 seconds Recommended rest = 15/20 seconds 1 minute Commonly used for = team sports involving repeated short sprints; 100 m track event; 25 m swimming events The longer the rest period, the greater the amount of PC restoration that occurs, and the more training is likely be of the ATP–PC system. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Interval training terminology© Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Continuous training involves running, cycling, swimming, etc., non-stop for a period of time is associated with improved cardiovascular functions (health benefit) must be completed within the 'aerobic training zone' = 70–85% max HR needs to be maintained for a minimum of 20 minutes (duration). © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Fartlek training originated in Sweden and means 'speed play'combines continuous work (running, cycling, swimming) with bursts of speed and lower intensity activities calls upon both anaerobic and aerobic energy systems trains both aerobic and anaerobic fitness components hills represent ideal terrain for Fartlek because they lend themselves to random changes in performance intensities and 'coasting/ floating' recoveries during downhill sections. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Resistance/weight training terminology© Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Resistance/weight training guidelines for advanced performersResistance/weight training guidelines for beginners and intermediate performers Resistance/weight training guidelines for advanced performers © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Resistance training – extra informationmuscle fibres are recruited according to intensity levels slow-twitch fibres are recruited at low intensities, fast-twitch fibres are recruited as intensity increases to maximal levels strength, power and hypertrophy training are all anaerobic and focus on fast-twitch fibres power is developed by working with 'light' resistances at 30–50% RM to enable the actions to be explosive and performed rapidly strength is developed by working with 'heavy' resistances at 70–80% RM to enable the actions to be performed at slow-moderate contraction speed LME is developed by working with 'moderate' resistances at approx 50% RM to enable the actions to be performed quickly with high repetitions. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Speed training short interval training combined with technique development will contribute to improved speed strength development and plyometrics will also contribute to improved speed running speed is a combination of stride frequency and stride length and speed will improve if one is maintained whilst the other is improved. Stride frequency will be improved as more contact is made with the ground and typical training drills to develop this involve downhill running, speed ladders and short hurdle work. Stride length is developed by improving leg strength to allow longer strides to be taken. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Plyometrics training calls upon the stretch-shortening cycle of muscles a rapid eccentric contraction (stored elastic energy) produces a stretch reflex followed by a rapid concentric contraction improves speed, agility and power by improved neural pathways and more efficient fibre recruitment and firing rates. improves running efficiency by generating more 'bound' per foot contact and hence increasingly being used by endurance runners. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Circuit training performers rotate through different activity stations (usually 8–12) trade of between training multiple fitness components and larger single component gains obtained via more targeted/specific training unless LME is being trained the circuit should be designed so the same muscle group is not used at consecutive stations popular for people wanting 'variety' and looking to gain overall 'fitness' benefits and health-related improvements easy to accommodate large groups of people/teams at the same time minimal equipment is required as many stations rely on body weight to provide resistance other methods can be incorporated within circuits (e.g. Weights, plyometrics, speed, etc., but not continuous training). © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Types of circuits Fixed-time Fixed-load Individual loadThis is the most common type of circuit Performers complete as many repetitions of an exercise at each station in an allocated time (30 – 60 seconds) Short rest periods follow work at each station whilst performers move from one station to the next = 'transition (10-20 seconds) If designed properly no-one should be waiting to complete exercises at and stations need to be added for larger groups/teams Fixed-load Every performer completes a pre-determined number of repetitions at each station (6 clap push-ups, 4 x 10m shuttle sprints; 15 tuck jumps) Individual strengths and weaknesses are not taken into account – some people might find the activities easy and others might struggle (this would slow the circuit down) Individual load This is individualised by first determining the maximum number of repetitions that can be performed in 60 seconds at each station and then performing 50 or 75% of these reps during the actual circuit Because everyone doing the circuit is completing different reps, some 'wait time' might be experienced in between stations © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Core strength trainingImproving core strength will: improve running efficiency decrease risk of lower back injuries improve transfer of power between lower and upper body parts improve balance and stability whilst performing skills improve acceleration/deceleration. So what is it? It is best depicted as a muscular box bounded by the abdominals at the front, the paraspinals and gluteals at the back, the diaphragm at the top and the pelvic floor and hip girdle musculature at the bottom. The most common type of core training involves Pilates and Swiss ball exercises. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
Flexibility training Improved flexibility will:enhance the development of speed, strength and power reduce the likelihood of injury improve posture reduce the impact of DOMS (delayed onset of muscle soreness) relieve physiological and psychological stress and tension. Maximum flexibility gains are obtained when muscles/joints have warmed up and is often focussed on at the end of workouts, although flexibility can also be the sole purpose of any training session. Static stretching: A joint is taken through it’s range of motion and this position is 'held' for 10+ seconds Dynamic and ballistic stretching: a joint is moved through its range of motion with controlled movement/momentum (dynamic) dynamic stretching should mimic some of the movements & actions soon to be performed ballistic stretching involves the same movements as dynamic stretching but with greater speed/force applied. PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) stretching: a joint is moved through it’s range of motion until resistance/slight discomfort is experienced isometric contraction of associated muscles for 6–10 seconds before relaxing muscles the joint is taken to full range of motion again and isometric contractions repeated this sequence is repeated 6–10 times. © Cengage Learning Australia 2011
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