Presentation on theme: "Linda Gerard Assistant Principal Learning Assistance"— Presentation transcript:
1 LINDFIELD EAST PUBLIC SCHOOL PARENT PRESENTATION HELPING MY CHILD WITH BEGINNING READING SKILLS Linda GerardAssistant Principal Learning AssistanceNorthern Sydney Region2012
2 Presentation Research into reading Reading model Practical ideas Strategies
3 The Brain Every brain is unique – like a fingerprint At birth, the human brain weighs 25% of adult weightThus, experiences at critical junctures can greatly influence connectionsMore importantly, an impoverished environment limits growth
4 From: American Early Childhood Literacy Gap ResearchThere is an overwhelming academic consensus that the years from birth to age 5 is the time when a child’s brain is undergoing the most growth and development.Cognitive development is the product of two interacting influences, brain growth and experience, both of which exert their greatest impact during the first five years of life.Reading to a child during this critical time, specifically during the preschool years of ages 3 - 5, builds a number of skills that are key to literacy, including phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and concepts about print conventions.Given the course of brain development, it is not surprising that most young children who are exposed to certain early language and literacy experiences usually prove to be good readers later.From: American Early Childhood Literacy Gap
5 Reading aloud Reading aloud to young children is critical Research has continually shown that when adults read to children, discussing story content, asking open-ended questions about story events, explaining the meaning of words, and pointing out features of print, they promote:increased language developmentcomprehension of storycontent, knowledge of story structure, and a better understanding of language– all of which lead to literacy success
6 HoweverNearly half the population struggles without the literacy skills to meet the most basic demands of everyday life and work.There are 46% of Australians who can't read newspapers, follow a recipe, make sense of timetables, or understand the instructions on a medicine bottle.If reading came naturally for all students, teaching would be a much easier job. Children would learn to read as readily as they learn to speak. Teachers would only need to give students the chance to practise their skillsBut many children don't learn to read just from being exposed to books. Reading must be taught. For these children, reading must be taught explicitly and systematically, one small step at a time
7 Why do some children have difficulty learning to read Why do some children have difficulty learning to read? Neuroplasticity of the brainWe were never born/hardwired to read – reading is an invention of manUnlike language, reading has no specific genes to set up its circuitry or to dictate its developmentAs we are taught/learn to read, the brain forges new pathways or connectionsNeuroplasticity is the brain’s ability to reorganise/rewire/ form new connections in its neural pathways based on new experiencesFor connections to be made, the brain needs hundreds of exposures to letters, letter patterns and wordsFor students with a reading disability (dyslexia), the brain needs thousands of exposures so that the brain can be restructures to automise printFrom, Professor Rosemary Tannock, Learning and Attention Difficulties: implicationsof neuroplasticity, The Sebel, Parramatta, Sept 25th 2009
8 Reading is a complex process and involves decoding words and understanding the alphabetic codeunderstanding vocabularyrechecking meaning and analysing information as it is being read and after it has been readgaining meaning from, responding to and making inferences from words and images in a variety of contextslinking known knowledge with the knowledge in textscategorising, building, changing, redefining and sharing knowledgetransferring knowledge to new contexts and subjectsunderstanding authors viewpoints, purpose and intended audiencecritically analysing messages and information in a variety of literacy modes (visual literacy, multimodal texts) for a variety of purposes.
9 Report: The National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy, Teaching Reading (2005) This report concluded that students learn best when an integrated approach isadopted with teachers explicitly teaching:Phonemic awareness – the ability to hear and manipulate sounds in oral languagePhonics – the relationship between letters and soundsFluency – the ability to read quickly and naturally, recognise words automatically and group wordsVocabulary knowledge – new words and what they meanText comprehension – understanding what is being read, developing higher-order thinking skills .Snow (1998) also identified the following as important:control over strategies for monitoring comprehension and repairing misunderstandingcontinued interest and motivation to read for a variety of purposes.
10 Early instruction and intervention – best outcomes when Explicit instruction for decoding, word analysis and context cueingLots of opportunities to practise skills and strategies with high levels of success ensuredCorrective feedback and encouragementTexts matched to student at appropriate level of difficultySpelling and writing included as integral part of literacy programAdults or peers used to facilitate additional practiceClose liaison established with parents/caregivers to ensure continuity of support at homeFrom: Westwood, P. Learning and Learning Difficulties, 2004
11 The Reading ModelGood readers integrate the four sources of information effortlessly, monitoring and adjusting their reading as they goThe four sources of information are:Semantic information (meaning)does this make sense?does this fit with what has gone before?Grammatical informationdoes this sound right?would we say it like that?Graphological information (visual)does it look right?Phonological information (sounds)do the sounds I want to say match the letters on the page?
12 Good readers Read quickly, effortlessly and with automaticity Employ all cues: semantics, grammatical/syntax, graphological, phonological & contextualThey read with tone & expression, pause appropriately and emphasise appropriate wordsRead chunks of print and don’t have to attend to each sound or each wordAs a result, they are able to attend to comprehension and enjoy the textAble to activate strategies as necessary when meaning breaks downDraw on their background knowledgeRisk takers, confident enough to engage in difficult tasks and enjoy the challenge – confident in their ability
13 Weak or dependant readers Weak readers labour to decode or identify wordsRely on a limited set of cuesRead word by word in a very stilted fashion with little intonation, pitch and fluencyOften do not realise when meaning has been disrupted - do not demand or expect sensible, coherent comprehension to be the end productPoor strategy knowledge and usageHave deficits at phonological level, perhaps underlying receptive and/or expressive language disorder or delayOften have limited vocabularyPoor comprehension as mental capacity taken up with working at word level
14 Differences K- 2 and 3 -6 Learning to Read Reading to Learn Jacobs explains that students learn and practise beginning reading skills through about the third grade, building their knowledge about language and letter-sound relationships and developing fluency in their reading.Reading to LearnAround fourth grade, students must begin to use these developing reading skills to learn – to make meaning, solve problems, and understand something new.They need to comprehend what they read through a three-stage meaning-making process : Prereading, Guided Reading & Postreading.
15 Language learning difficulties Difficulties with reading, writing and spelling are often part of the bigger picture of language disability"...children who have trouble with oral language generally will go on to have difficulty with written language..."Dr. Paula Tallal, Co-Director, Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, RutgersReview of literature shows that up to 75% of children with early language delays continue to show reading problems at age 8 yearsLaw,J; Boyle, J; Harris, F; Harkness, A; & Nye, C (1998)
16 Language Expressive Language: Talking -Use of vocabulary, sentences, longer utterances to convey a messageReceptive Language:- Understanding of vocabulary, grammar, sentences, instructions, explanations, storiesPragmatic language: Social skills – the unwritten rules of communication eg eye contact, taking turns, topic maintenance , asking to join a game appropriately etc
17 At risk markers Family history of reading difficulties Delayed speech and language development –slow vocabulary development, poor expressive language, weak syntaxPersistent problems with sound processing, inconsistentSpeech productionProblems mastering production of new wordsEvident naming, word retrieval difficultiesDifficulty learning letter soundsPoor invented spellingDifficulty with other rote sequences (eg. days of week, birthday)Slow progress despite well monitored, code based instruction.
18 What is dyslexiaDyslexia is a language based deficit/disorder that can be linked to neurological originDyslexia occurs across the range of intellectual abilitiesDyslexia is a learning problem that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spellingCharacteristics: difficulties with phonological awareness, verbal memory and verbal processing speedCo-occurring difficulties may be seen in aspects of language, motor coordination, mental calculation, concentration and personal organisation, but these are not, by themselves, markers of dyslexiaA good indication of the severity and persistence of dyslexia can be gained by examining the individuals response to well-founded interventionSource: National Report from Dyslexia Working Party, Jan 2010 and Rose Report , UK, 2009
19 Impact on student learning Impedes development of age appropriate reading, writing and spelling skillsWithout support, limits access to age appropriate curriculum across the Key Learning AreasStudents with dyslexia are often slow to respond to evidence-based interventionsStudents with dyslexia are at greater risk of exiting school without achieving literacy skills sufficient to meeting the increasingly complex demands of everyday life
20 How to help your children Young people lead busy lives and school curricula become increasingly crowded.This may not affect keen readers, who will always make the time for books, but it does deter reluctant or uncommitted readersHow we can overcome these barriers?Develop a reading culture at home and/or at school.Be open to new formats such as graphic novelsExplore the opportunities presented by new media such as lively websites, blogs and book trailers, extending the life of a book beyond its coversKeeping Young Australians Reading, Centre for Youth Literacy, Nov 2009
21 Reading with childrenSharing a book for just 10 minutes a day, an hour or so a week, can instil in a child a lifelong love of reading.Children should be encouraged to explore and experiment with a wide variety of texts, including:PostersMagazinesComicsPicture booksE books and gamesDictionariesAtlases\manualsPoemsPlaysNovels/NovellasNewspapersTravel books timetablesSchedulesVisual textsRoad signsFood packagingScreen games
22 Methods Read aloud to your child Child reads aloud to you/sibling Take turns reading with your child (paragraph/page each)Read together, in unison (Neurological Impress Method)Child reads onto a tapeChild reads along with book on tape/CD/ MP3 Player/computer/E bookSilent readingVary the use of activities to keep it interesting for everyone involvedReread ‘loved’ storiesLots of discussion about vocabularyIf concerned about your child’s progress, make an appointment with the classroom teacher
23 Three levels of textIndependent text – can be familiar texts; easy to read/read for pleasure; can pick up and put down; look at the TV whilst we read it; most home readers from school; Premier’s Reading Challenge; DEAR time in class; to increase fluencyInstructional texts – these are generally texts that are used during guided reading lessons to teach children to read, with support from teacher/parent volunteer; need more concentration; need to activate strategies when understanding breaks down; may be more unknown vocabulary/technical wordsFrustration level texts – too difficult to read alone; may be read to; follow along with CD; read along with voice activation on CD ROM
24 keep it short, simple and moving Introducing a new bookThis should be fun and exciting sokeep it short, simple and movingBefore ReadingTalk about the author/previous books readPredict what the story may be about from title/cover/picturesDraw attention to difficult or unusual words in book – discuss meaningDiscuss places, things relevant to story.
25 During ReadingIf the student makes an error or encounters an unknown word, activate the Pause, Prompt and Praise methodStep 1:Pause to give the student a chance to solve the problem.Step 2:If the mistake does not make sense, let the student read to the end of the sentence and ask them, “did that make sense?”Prompt them with a clue about meaning.If the mistake did not sound right (they mispronounced the word), prompt with a clue about how we should say the word/look at the chunks/sound combinations and discuss.If the mistake makes sense and sounds right, prompt with a clue about how the word looks. Encourage the student to guess a word that makes sense and check to see if the guess matches the sounds in the word and the look of the word.If the student pauses too long or says nothing, prompt them to read on to the end of the sentence, think about a word that would make sense, and then check that it matches the letters.Students can also be prompted to re-read to see if they can self-correct; to look for little words, prefixes, suffixes in the larger word; or to stretch out the word.After two prompts, tell the student the word. The student then rereads the sentence correctly.Step 3:Praise when the student reads correctly or self-corrects; gets a word correct after prompting; makes a good attempt at an unknown word; read with expression etc.
27 Prompting: The Listener’s Role A listeners intervention should not be:PrematureDestructive to the reader’ s search for meaning and accuracyDestructive to the reader’s ability to store and recallHabitual prompting by providing words builds up the reader’s expectation that difficulties will be resolved by the listenerThe aim of intervening is to assist the child to make their own decisions and to choose the correct strategy to employ (eg reread, read on, chunk, think of what will make sense and check letters)
28 After Reading (choose 1) Talk to your child about the storyAsk them how they would feel if they were in that situation.Ask the student to retell the story in their own words or identify the main idea as succinctly as possible.Ask the student literal, inferential and creative questions about the text.Literal questions are those straight from the textInferential questions relate to information that is inferred in the text, or information that needs connecting over a number of pagesCreative/Evaluative/Critical questions are those which activate the student’s knowledge of the world and empower them to use higherorder thinking skillsDiscuss predictions. Were they correct/incorrect in their original predictions? Why/Why not?Discuss why the author may have written the text.Discuss whether they agree with the author’s point of view – use the text to back up answers.Discuss characters.Link story back to personal experience.Discuss how home and hill start with ‘h’, or how bubble and trouble rhyme.Ask your child to open the book at a certain page and find the word that means _____.Tell your child the beginning of a sentence and ask them to scan the text, locate the sentence and complete it.Identify the 4 main events in the story. Tell your child (or write the down) these events in a jumbled order and ask them to sequence them correctly.
29 Importance of Encouragement Encouragement can be used to:Let children know they are doing the correct thing (eg reading for pleasure)Reinforce use of appropriate reading strategiesGive credit for correcting errors (with or without assistance)Reward effortMotivate children to keep tryingGive realistic feedbackThere are two types of encouragement:Descriptive (eg good, you realised that didn’t make sense and re-read the sentence)General (well done, great!)Always work form the positive rather than the negative.
30 Levels of comprehension Literal: basic facts understood; right Here in the textInferential: reader draws together information from number of pages – information Hidden ; goes beyond what is written right there and makes meaning or draws conclusionsEvaluative:Critical: (Head) reader assesses what they are reading for accuracy, clarity, bias or exaggerationCreative: (Head) the reader takes information or ideas from what has been read and develops new ideas, original thinking
31 Summary: Encourage your children to PredictActivate their background/prior knowledgeMonitor their understanding and activate strategies to work out unknown words:1. Think about what would both fit the letters and make sense2. Read on and look for key words/ideas to help3. Re-read to check/confirm/look for clues4. Ask themselves, “did that make sense?”5. Look at chunks, little words, prefixes and suffixesSelf-correct when meaning lostLook at the pictures for cluesRecall main ideas when finished readingExpand their vocabulary; clarify the meaning of new wordsRead widely and regularly
32 Selecting a book: Five Finger Method (quick guide only) Select text.As your child reads, note each error (fold finger).Calculate:0 – 1 fingers book is too easy2 - 3 fingers book is suitable4 – 5 fingers book is too difficult.An error is an uncorrected word omitted, inserted, substituted, a word refused for 5 seconds or made up text. Words which are self-corrected are not errors.
33 100 word test for older students Mark off 100 wordsCount errorsCalculate:0- 5 errors: Independent text5 – 10 errors: Instructional level text10+ errors: Frustration
34 Websites National year of Reading Website www.love2read.org.au Reading RocketsFlorida Centre for Reading ResearchSpeech, Language and CommunicationInteractive readers & games