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Cell membranes and exchange of material

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Presentation on theme: "Cell membranes and exchange of material"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell membranes and exchange of material

2 Exchange of material Occurs at the cell membrane
Involves the intake of essential materials eg nutrients and oxygen and the removal of unwanted materials eg wastes The processes involved include diffusion, osmosis and active transport

3 Structure of the cell membrane
Fluid mosaic model Describe the roles of: Phospholipids Waterproof barrier, acts as a bubble, main constituent Proteins Act as carriers, receptor sites, antigens, channels Carbohydrates Act as receptor sites, antigens

4 Exchange of material Small particles eg water, ions can pass through the gaps between the phospholipids Larger molecules pass through channels in the proteins or are carried by special proteins

5 Movement of particles - diffusion
Occurs without energy Particles will move from higher concentrations to lower concentrations

6 Movement through membranes

7 Diffusion through membranes
Membranes are differentially permeable Permeable substances (eg small particles) move through Impermeable substances (eg large particles) can’t move through Movement is from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration Energy is not needed

8 Facilitated diffusion
Allows larger or less permeable substances to cross Involves channel proteins Energy is not needed

9 Osmosis Movement of water
This occurs from areas of high water concentration (low concentration of solute) to areas of low water concentration (high concentration of solute)

10 Concentration gradient
This refers to the difference in concentration across membranes The steeper the gradient, the greater the movement Osmotic pressure refers to the pull of water due to concentration gradients

11 Active transport Movement against a concentration gradient.
Energy is needed

12 Ion pumps Involves special proteins that act as pumps
Allows cells to maintain ion concentrations that are very different from the external environment Energy is used

13 Endocytosis Movement due to folding of membrane and bringing in the trapped substances Energy is needed Phagocytosis – solid substances trapped Pinocytosis – liquids are trapped

14 Exocytosis Movement due to vacuoles moving to membrane and attaching to release contents Energy is needed

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