2Key physical trends Bipedalism is walking on two legs. First observed in AustralopithecinesAdaptations of the human body for bipedal locomotion and upright stance include:Skull - is smaller, with foramen magnum centrally located at its base, with flatter, less prognathic face and smaller jaws (less top heavy)Spine - is ‘S’-shaped - due to extra lumbar curvePelvis – is broader and bowl shaped, with wide ileum for gluteal attachment. The wider hips give greater stabilityLegs - are longer, have a carrying angle at head of femur legs angled to bring feet under body, have larger gluteal muscles and a larger, more rigid knee structureFeet – are less prehensile, have a larger heel, two arches instead of just one, the toes are parallel, and the first digit on foot is non-opposable and larger than the other toes
3Key physical trends Changes in dentition Smaller teeth and jaw (as discussed above) associated with a change in diet (increase in meat) and changes in skull structures associated with bipedalism. Loss of prominent canine and diastema. Change in shape from ‘U’ (rectangular) to ‘’ (parabolic or horseshoe shaped)Changes in the braincranial capacity (size) increasesnumber of convolutions (complexity) also increases
4Key cultural advancesTools - Appearance of tool use associated with the Australopithecines (similar to that seen in chimps) – rocks & sticks used to kill small animals or chase away scavengers, sharp rocks used to cut up scavenged carcasses. Then the manufacture of tools and increasing complexity of tools used:pebble tools by Homo habilis,core tools by Homo erectus,flake tools by Neanderthalsblade tools by Cro-Magnon, includes ivory & antlermetal tools – modern man
5Key cultural advances Fire - starting with Homo erectus. Shelter - Changes in sheltering patterns from hiding in trees (Australopithecines) to the use of caves, and the building of huts (Homo erectus, Neanderthals and Cro-Magnon). The appearance of clothing with Cro-Magnon (as opposed to wrappings/skins – eg Homo erectus, Neanderthals) as demonstrated by the finding of needles.Art - starting with Cro-MagnonReligion - as demonstrated by burial (starting with Neanderthals) and/or artwork (starting with Cro-Magnon)
6Developments in food acquisition Changes in lifestylefrom mainly herbivorous gatherers (early & robust Australopithecines)to omnivorous gatherer/scavenger (gracile Australopithecines, Homo habilis)to omnivorous hunter/gatherers (Homo erectus, Neanderthals and Cro-Magnon)and then to agriculturalist (modern man), with changes in number of individuals and complexity of groups found – the greater and more reliable the food supply, the larger and more complex the group can be.
7LifestylesHerbivorous gatherers - early & robust Australopithecines
8LifestylesOmnivorous gatherer/scavengers - gracile Australopithecines, Homo habilis
9LifestylesOmnivorous hunter/gatherers - Homo erectus, Neanderthals and Cro-Magnon
10LifestylesOmnivorous agriculturalists - (farming and the domestication of plants and animals) - modern man.