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Students as Producers: Engaging Students in Research and Inquiry Mick Healey www.mickhealey.co.uk “We need to encourage universities and colleges to explore.

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Presentation on theme: "Students as Producers: Engaging Students in Research and Inquiry Mick Healey www.mickhealey.co.uk “We need to encourage universities and colleges to explore."— Presentation transcript:

1 Students as Producers: Engaging Students in Research and Inquiry Mick Healey “We need to encourage universities and colleges to explore new models of curriculum. … There are several models that we might explore. They should all: … Incorporate research-based study for undergraduates” (Paul Ramsden, 2008)

2 Our argument: a ‘research active curriculum’ “All undergraduate students in all higher education institutions should experience learning through, and about, research and inquiry. … We argue, as does much recent US experience, that such curricular experience should and can be mainstreamed for all or many students through a research-active curriculum. We argue that this can be achieved through structured interventions at course team, departmental, institutional and national levels” (Healey and Jenkins, 2009, 3).

3 Students as producers "Student as Producer works on more than one level: as a curriculum development project, as a model of institutional change and as a social movement concerned with reinventing the 'idea of the university'." (Neary 2012)

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5 HE Consultant and Researcher Economic geographer and Director Centre for Active Learning Director HE Academy projects on ‘Undergraduate research’ and ‘Rethinking final year projects and dissertation’ Ex-VP for Europe International Society for Scholarship of Teaching and Learning National Teaching Fellow and Senior Fellow HE Academy Advisor to Canadian Federal Government ‘Roundtable on Research, Teaching and Learning in post-Secondary Education’ (2006) Advisor to National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (Ireland) ( ) Advisor to Australian Learning and Teaching Council Projects on the ‘Teaching- research nexus’ ( ), ‘Undergraduate research’ ( ), and ‘Teaching research’ ( ) Advisor to League of European Research Universities on research-based teaching (2009) Honorary Professor University of Queensland; Visiting Professor Edinburgh Napier and University of Wales Newport Co-Editor International Journal for Academic Development; Joint International Editor Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly Research interests: scholarship of teaching; linking research and teaching; active learning; developing an inclusive curriculum for disabled students Brief biography

6 Engaging students in research and inquiry "Postgraduate study is too late to start; research attributes need to be integrated fully into undergraduate courses" Ian Diamond, Chair Research Councils UK, 2010

7 Engaging students in research and inquiry “For the students who are the professionals of the future, developing the ability to investigate problems, make judgments on the basis of sound evidence, take decisions on a rational basis, and understand what they are doing and why is vital. Research and inquiry is not just for those who choose to pursue an academic career. It is central to professional life in the twenty-first century.” Brew (2007, 7)

8 Engaging students in research and inquiry “Developing the Student as Scholar Model requires a fundamental shift in how we structure and imagine the whole undergraduate experience. It requires, as a minimum, the adoption of the Learning Paradigm in everything from the first introductory course through the final capstone experience. It requires a culture of inquiry-based learning infused throughout the entire liberal arts curriculum that starts with the very first day of college and is reinforced in every classroom and program.” (Hodge et al. 2007, 1)

9 Engaging students in research and inquiry 1.Different ways of engaging students 2.Strategies for engaging students at the beginning of their course 3.Strategies for engaging students at the end of their course 4.Strategies for engaging students throughout their course

10 STUDENTS ARE PARTICIPANTS EMPHASIS ON RESEARCH CONTENT EMPHASIS ON RESEARCH PROCESSES AND PROBLEMS STUDENTS FREQUENTLY ARE AN AUDIENCE Research-tutored Research-based Research-led Research-oriented Curriculum design and the research-teaching nexus (based on Healey, 2005, 70) Engaging in research discussions Undertaking research and inquiry Learning about current research in the discipline Developing research and inquiry skills and techniques

11 Mainstreaming undergraduate research and inquiry through the disciplines In pairs, each skim read at least ONE strategy for engaging students with research in disciplines ( pp 1-6) Discuss whether and how any of the ideas may be amended for application in your course team or departmental contexts 5 minutes

12 What is research? Breaking new ground; moving forward; exploration and discovery How visible is it? Laboratories and machinery (ie tools) but often behind closed doors Where is it located? Out there; at a higher level Who does it? Lecturers Students experience of learning in a research environment: Physics Source: Robertson and Blackler (2006)

13 What is research? Gathering information in the world; answering a question How visible is it? Most visible in the field Where is it located? Out there in the field Who does it? Lecturers and (increasingly over time) students Students experience of learning in a research environment: Geography Source: Robertson and Blackler (2006)

14 What is research? Looking into; gathering; putting it together; a focus of interest How visible is it? Not tangibly visible but apparent in the dialogue Where is it located? In the library; in the head Who does it? Lecturers and students Students experience of learning in a research environment: English Source: Robertson and Blackler (2006)

15 EXPLORING AND ACQUIRING EXISTING KNOWLEDGE PARTICIPATING IN BUILDING KNOWLEDGE STUDENT-LED STAFF-LED Pursuing (information-active) Identifying (information-responsive) Authoring (discovery-active) Producing (discovery-responsive) Inquiry-based learning: a conceptual framework (Based on Levy, 2009)

16 High Impact Activities  First-Year Seminars and Experiences  First-Year Seminars and Experiences  Common Intellectual Experiences  Learning Communities  Writing-Intensive Courses  Collaborative Assignments and Projects  “Science as Science Is Done”; Undergraduate Research  Diversity/Global Learning  Service Learning, Community-Based Learning  Internships  Capstone Courses and Projects Source: Kuh, 2008

17 Strategies for engaging students at the beginning of their courses In pairs, each skim read at least ONE different year one case study (2.1 – 2.11 pp 6-9). Discuss whether and how any of the ideas may be amended for application in your contexts. 5 minutes

18 Different views on undergraduate research Dimensions of undergraduate research Student, process centred Outcome, product centred Student initiated Faculty initiated Honors students All students Curriculum based Co-curricular fellowships Collaborative Individual Original to the student Original to the discipline Multi-or interdisciplinary Discipline based Campus/community audience Professional audience Capstone/final year Starting year one Pervades the curriculum Focussed (Source: Adapted from Beckham and Hensel, 2007)

19 Strategies for engaging students in final year and capstone courses In a different pair, each skim read at least ONE different final year and capstone case study (3.1 – 3.11 pp 10-13). Discuss whether and how any of the ideas may be amended for application in your contexts. 5 minutes

20 Final year projects and dissertations Alternative or additional projects, many of which may be employment or community-based, are required to meet the needs of all students regardless of background, discipline or life goals – see invitation p.20.

21 The developmental journey of the student University curricula need to support student and citizen development from “absolute knowing [where] students view knowledge as certain; their role is to obtain it from authorities … (to) contextual knowing [where] students believe that knowledge is constructed in a context based on judgement of evidence; their role is to exchange and compare perspectives, think through problems, and integrate and apply knowledge” (Baxter Magolda, 1992, 75).

22 The developmental journey of the student Developmental LevelStudent traits Reliance on external references [Foundations] Knowledge viewed as certain Reliance on authorities as source of knowledge Externally defined value system and identity At the crossroads [Intermediate Learning] Evolving awareness of multiple perspectives and uncertainty Evolving awareness of own values and identity and of limitations of dependent relationships Self-authorship [Capstone] Awareness of knowledge as contextual Development of internal belief system and sense of self capacity to engage in authentic, interdependent relationships Source: Hodge et al. (2008)

23 Engaging students throughout their course In pairs each skim read the abstracts for ONE different group of DEPARTMENTS ( pp.13-19). Discuss whether any of the ideas may be amended for application in your context 5 minutes

24 Modes of IBL Importance of scaffolding provided by lecturer and development of independence in learner Structured – where lecturers provide an issue or problem and an outline for addressing it Guided – where lecturers provide questions to stimulate inquiry but students are self-directed in terms of exploring these questions Open – where students formulate the questions themselves as well as going through the full inquiry cycle (after Staver and Bay, 1987)

25 Conceptual model Darker shading = strengthening of teaching-research links AND enhanced learning outcomes (Spronken-Smith and Walker, 2009; Spronken-Smith et al., 2009) Information-oriented: products of research Discovery-oriented: process of research PursuingAuthoring ProducingIdentifying

26 Scaffolding inquiry throughout a degree 1 st year 2 nd year 3 rd year 2 nd year 3 rd year

27 Inquiry at Miami University Students in the redesigned courses reported engaging in more inquiry-driven activities (e.g., “working on assignments that require you to build understanding on your own”);

28 Inquiry at Miami University Students in redesigned courses were more likely to contribute to class discussions and to work with other students during class

29 Inquiry at Miami University Students in redesigned courses reported less course emphasis on “memorizing facts, ideas, or methods” and spent significantly more time preparing for the courses

30 Engaging students in research and inquiry In twos and threes one of you should identify a way in which you propose to engage the students in your course or programme in research and inquiry and the others should act as critical friends. 10 minutes

31 International perspectives on undergraduate research and inquiry Pre-ISSoTL Seminar 19 Oct 2010 Liverpool Over 50 posters and over 70 delegates Pre-ISSoTL Seminar 19 th Oct 2011 Milwaukee Themes: Research experiences in the first year or senior year; International undergraduate research collaborations and exchanges; Curriculum including research and inquiry

32 Mainstreaming undergraduate research and inquiry: conclusions Getting students to produce knowledge rather than just consume knowledge is a way to re-link teaching and research The challenge is to mainstream undergraduate research so that all students may potentially benefit Adopting a broader definition of undergraduate research than is currently common is a way forward (Boyer et al.), which should benefit the learning of students in institutions with a range of different missions

33 Mainstreaming undergraduate research and inquiry: conclusions If undergraduate research is to be truly integrated into HE then the nature of higher education itself will need to be reconceptualised. “universities need to move towards creating inclusive scholarly knowledge-building communities. … The notion of inclusive scholarly knowledge-building communities invites us to consider new ideas about who the scholars are in universities and how they might work in partnership.” (Brew, 2007, 4) There is a need to do more thinking ‘outside the box’

34 THE END Thank You Engaging Students in Research and Inquiry


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