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Virtual Infrastructure C27_B259, MSCS building, UNE, Armidale, NSW, Australia on Friday, 25th May 2007 from 12 to 1pm. by Dr. Charles R. Watson School.

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Presentation on theme: "Virtual Infrastructure C27_B259, MSCS building, UNE, Armidale, NSW, Australia on Friday, 25th May 2007 from 12 to 1pm. by Dr. Charles R. Watson School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Virtual Infrastructure C27_B259, MSCS building, UNE, Armidale, NSW, Australia on Friday, 25th May 2007 from 12 to 1pm. by Dr. Charles R. Watson School of Maths, Stats and Computer Science University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351 URL: URL:

2 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Overview Digital Communications Technology Voice over IP Integrity and Availability Security Discussion: cost-neutral improvement of our virtual infrastructure

3 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Transmission Media

4 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Wireless LAN Architecture

5 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Ethernet: CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection

6 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Protocol Analyzers Traffic displayed by protocol type

7 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Wide Area Network

8 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Gateways

9 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Client/Server Communication

10 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Satellite Internet Access

11 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Satellite Internet Access (continued) Dial return satellite Internet service

12 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure WAN Technologies Compared

13 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure WAN Technologies Compared (continued)

14 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Voice-over-IP Cisco AS5300 is the core AARNet Gateway.Cisco AS5300 Voice card for Cisco 3660 Skype is a peer-to-peer Internet telephony network founded by the Niklas Zennström.peer-to-peerInternet telephony networkNiklas Zennström –It competes against existing open VoIP protocols such as SIP, IAX, and H.323.VoIPSIPIAXH.323 –Rapid growth in free and paid services.paid services –Features include free voice and video conferencing, its ability to use peer to peer (decentralized) technology to overcome common firewall and NAT (Network address translation) problemspeer to peerfirewallNATNetwork address translation

15 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure VoIP (continued) Accessing a VoIP network from traditional telephones

16 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure VoIP (continued) Accessing a VoIP network from IP phones

17 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Internet Group Management Protocol Network layer protocol that manages multicasting allowing one node to send data to defined group of nodes Routers use IGMP to determine which nodes belong to multicast group and to transmit data to all nodes in that group IGMP can be used for online video and gaming, and allows more efficient use of resources UDP - User (Unreliable) Datagram Protocol is faster and more efficient than TCP for lightweight or time-sensitive purposes, e.g. IPTV, audio-visual streaming media

18 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Real world example One hour of video encoded at 300 kbit/s (this is a typical broadband video for 2005 and it's usually encoded in a 320×240 pixels window size) will be:hour –(3,600 s · 300 kbit/s) / 8, = MiB of storageMiB If the file is stored on a server for on-demand streaming. If this stream is viewed by 1,000 people using a Unicast protocol, you would needUnicast 300 kbit/s · 1,000 = 300,000 kbit/s = 300 Mbit/s of bandwidthMbit/s This is equivalent to GiB per hour. Of course, using a Multicast protocol the server sends out only a single stream that is common to all users. Hence, such a stream would only use 300 kbit/s of bandwidth.GiB Multicast kbit/s

19 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Integrity and Availability Integrity refers to the soundness of network files, systems, and connections Fault tolerance is a system’s capacity to continue performing despite unexpected hardware or software malfunction A UPS is a battery power source that prevents undesired features of the power source from harming the device or interrupting its services Backup rotation provides excellent data reliability without overtaxing network or requiring much intervention Disaster recovery is the process of restoring critical functionality and data after an enterprise-wide outage Critical servers often contain redundant NICs, processors, and/or hard disks to provide better fault tolerance Server mirroring involves utilizing a second, identical server to duplicate the transactions and data storage of one server Clustering links multiple servers together to act as a single server

20 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Redundant Array of Independent (or Inexpensive) Disks RAID Level 5—disk striping with distributed parity

21 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Fully redundant T1 connectivity Redundancy provides load balancing and fault tolerance.

22 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Security Choosing secure passwords is one of the easiest and least expensive ways to guard against unauthorized access. A security policy identifies an organization’s security goals, risks, levels of authority, designated security coordinator and team members, responsibilities for each team member and each employee, and strategies for addressing security breaches. A firewall is a specialized device that selectively filters or blocks traffic between networks. A proxy service is a software application on a network host that acts as an intermediary between the external and internal networks, screening all incoming and outgoing traffic.

23 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Physical Security Badge access security system

24 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Authentication A RADIUS server providing centralized authentication

25 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Domains = Organizational Units

26 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Trust Relationships

27 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Trust Relationships (continued) Explicit one-way trust between domains in different trees

28 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Public Key Encryption

29 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Proxy Servers A proxy server used on a WAN

30 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Network Address Translation

31 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Deep packet inspection Deep packet inspection (DPI) is a form of computer network packet filtering that examines the data part of a through-passing packet, searching for non-protocol compliance or predefined criteria to decide if the packet can pass. This is in contrast to shallow packet inspection (usually called just packet inspection) which just checks the header portion of a packet.computer networkpacket filteringdatapacketheader DPI devices have the ability to look at Layer 2 through Layer 7 of the OSI model. This includes headers and data protocol structures. The DPI will identify and classify the traffic based on a signature databaseOSI model A classified packet can be redirected, marked/tagged (see QoS), blocked, rate limited, and of course, reported to a reporting agent in the network.QoS Many DPI devices identify flows rather than a packet by packet analysis. DPI allows phone and cable companies to "readily know the packets of information you are receiving online--from , to websites, to sharing of music, video and software downloads"[1].[1] DPI is also increasingly being used in security devices to analyze flows, compare them against policy, and then treat the traffic appropriately (i.e., block, allow, rate limit, tag for priority, mirror to another device for more analysis or reporting).

32 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Project Management

33 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure NCRIS National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) projects Platforms for collaboration Data access and discovery, storage and management Grid enabled technologies and infrastructure Technical expertise High performance computing High capacity communications networks "Platforms for Collaboration" will develop our strengths in other NCRIS categories: Evolving Bio-molecular Platforms and Informatics Integrated Biological Systems Biotechnology Products Networked Bio-security Framework Structure and Evolution of the Australian Continent Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network Population health and clinical data linkage

34 25th May 2007Virtual Infrastructure Discussion Future virtual infrastructure spam voice-over-IP multicasting firewall configuration federated identity management intellectual property protection cost-neutral deployment rapid obsolescence


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