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10 chapter Business Essentials, 7 th Edition Ebert/Griffin © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Human Resource Management and Labor Relations Instructor Lecture PowerPoints PowerPoint Presentation prepared by Carol Vollmer Pope Alverno College
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.2
After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1.Define human resource management and explain how managers plan for their organizations human resource needs. 2.Identify the tasks in staffing a company and discuss ways in which organizations select, develop, and appraise employee performance. 3.Describe the main components of a compensation system and describe some of the key legal issues involved in hiring, compensating, and managing workers in todays workplace. L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 4.Discuss workforce diversity, the management of knowledge workers, and the use of a contingent workforce as important changes in the contemporary workplace. 5.Explain why workers organize into labor unions and describe the collective bargaining process. L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S (contd) © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Whats in It for Me? Why does effectively managing human resources matter to you? – By understanding the material in this chapter, youll be better able to understand: 1.The importance of properly managing human resources in a unit or business you own or supervise 2.Why and how your employer provides the working arrangements that most directly affect you © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Foundations of Human Resource Management Human Resource Management (HRM) – Activities directed at attracting, developing, and maintaining an effective workforce The Strategic Importance of HRM – Human resources has a substantial impact on a firms bottom-line performance – Many firms are developing strategic HR plans – Chief officer reports to CEO © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.1 The HR Planning Process © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
HR Planning Job Description Lists the duties and responsibilities of a job; its working conditions; and the tools, materials equipment, and information used to perform it Job Description Lists the duties and responsibilities of a job; its working conditions; and the tools, materials equipment, and information used to perform it Job Specification Lists the skills, abilities, and other credentials and qualifications needed to perform the job effectively Job Specification Lists the skills, abilities, and other credentials and qualifications needed to perform the job effectively Job Analysis – A systematic analysis of jobs within an organization © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
HR Planning (contd) Forecasting HR Demand and Supply – Forecasting internal supply (number/type of people who will be in the firm at a future date) Replacement charts Employee information systems (skills inventories) – Forecasting external supply (number/type of people who will be available for hiring from the labor market at large) State employment commissions Government reports College information © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
HR Planning (contd) Matching HR Supply and Demand – Alleviating Shortfalls Seeking new hires Retraining and transferring present employees Retaining retirees Installing more productive systems – Managing Overstaffing Transferring extra employees Not replacing employees who quit (attrition) Encouraging early retirement Laying off personnel © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Staffing the Organization Recruiting – Attracting qualified persons to apply for the jobs that are open – Internal Recruiting Considering present employees as candidates for openings – Promotion from within – Union contracts and job bidding – External Recruiting Attracting people outside of the organization to apply for jobs – State employment agencies – Private employment agencies – Advertisements © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Staffing the Organization (contd) Selecting Human Resources – Application formsno illegal questions – Testsability, skills, aptitude, knowledge, attitude – Interviewsvalidity is increased by: Training interviewers to reduce individual bias Using a structured interview format with job-related questions to improve consistency, reduce bias, and eliminate illegal questioning of applicants – Other Techniques Polygraph tests Physical examinations Drug tests Reference checks © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Developing the Workforce Training – On-the-job training – Off-the-job training – Vestibule training © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Developing the Workforce (contd) Performance Appraisal – Defining performance standards – Observing performance – Writing up the assessment – Discussing the appraisal Performance Appraisal Evaluating job performance Performance Appraisal Evaluating job performance © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
FIGURE 10.2 Sample Performance Evaluation Form © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Compensation and Benefits Compensation System – The total package of rewards that a company offers employees in return for their labor Wagesmoney paid for time worked Salarymoney paid to perform a job – Factors affecting compensation Competitors wage offerings Internal wage and salary structurejob value, performance, and longevity © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Compensation and Benefits (contd) Incentive programs – Special pay programs designed to motivate high performance – Individual incentives: Bonuses Merit salary systems Pay for performance (variable pay) – Company-wide incentives: Profit-sharing plans Gain sharing plans Pay-for-knowledge plans © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Compensation and Benefits (contd) Benefits Programs – Mandatory (required by law) Social Security retirement benefits Workers compensation insurance – Discretionary (optional) Health, life, and disability insurance Vacations and holidays Employee assistance programs Retirement (pension) plans – Contain the costs of benefits Cafeteria benefits plans © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Legal Context of HRM Equal Employment Opportunity Laws – Protect workers from unfair or inappropriate (non-job-related) discrimination in the workplace Protected Classes in the Workplace – Individuals sharing common characteristics as defined by law Race, color, religion, gender, age, national origin, disability status, and status as a military veteran Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) – Federal agency that enforces discrimination-related laws Affirmative Action – Written plan for actively recruiting, hiring, and developing members of protected classes © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Legal Context of HRM (contd) Contemporary Legal Issues in HRM – Employee safety and health Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) – Emerging areas of discrimination law AIDS in the workplace Sexual harassment – Quid pro quo – Hostile work environment Employment-at-will – Wrongful discharge The Patriot Act – Developed in response to 9/11/2001 – Grants government investigators rights to what was privileged information – Bars certain restricted individuals (i.e., ex convicts, aliens) from working with restricted biological agents © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
New Challenges in the Changing Workplace Managing Workforce Diversity – Workforce diversity: The range of workers attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors that differ by gender, race, age, ethnicity, physical ability, and other relevant characteristics – Organizations are recognizing that diversity can be a competitive advantage © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
FIGURE 10.3a Distribution of the Labor Force by Race 1990 – 2050 FIGURE 10.3b Hispanic Share of Civilian Labor © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
New Challenges in the Changing Workplace (contd) Managing Knowledge Workers – Knowledge workers add value because of what they know Computer scientists Physical scientists Engineers Hiring and retaining knowledge workers is a critical HR challenge © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
New Challenges in the Changing Workplace (contd) Contingent Workers – A person who works for an organization on something other than a permanent or full-time basis Independent contractors On-call workers Temporary employees Contract and leased employees Part-time workers © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
New Challenges in the Changing Workplace (contd) Managing Contingent and Temporary Workers – Careful planning for coordinated use of temporary workers – Understanding the advantages and disadvantages of contingent workers – Assessing the true cost of using contingent workers – Developing a strategy for integrating contingent workers into the organization © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Dealing with Organized Labor Labor Union – A group of individuals working together to achieve shared job-related goals, such as higher pay, shorter working hours, more job security, greater benefits, or better working conditions Labor Relations – The process of dealing with employees who are represented by a union Collective Bargaining – The process by which union leaders and managers negotiate common terms and conditions of employment for the workers represented by unions © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Dealing with Organized Labor (contd) Trends in Union Membership – Since the mid-1950s, membership has declined at a steady rate to its present level of 12.1 percent in – The percentage of successful union-organizing campaigns has also declined. Trends in Union-Management Relations – In most sectors, unions are in a weakened position and have taken more conciliatory stances in their relations with management. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Collective Bargaining – An ongoing process involving both the drafting and the administering of the terms of a labor contract. Contract Issues – Compensation Cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) clauses Wage reopener clauses – Benefits – Job security – Management rights © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Collective Bargaining (contd) Union Tactics When Bargaining Fails – Strike – Picketing – Boycott – Work slowdown Management Tactics When Bargaining Fails – Lockouts – Strikebreakers © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mediation Voluntary Arbitration Compulsory Arbitration Collective Bargaining (contd) Resolving Disputes © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Key Terms affirmative action plan benefits bonus boycott cafeteria benefits plan collective bargaining compensation system compulsory arbitration contingent worker cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) economic strike employee information system (skills inventory) employment at will equal employment opportunity Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) external recruiting gain sharing plan hostile work environment human resource management (HRM) incentive program internal recruiting job analysis job description job specification knowledge workers © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Key Terms (contd) labor relations labor union lockout mediation merit salary system © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
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