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RELIGION IN AUSTRALIA PRE 1945 Christianity Islam Judaism The Arrival of… The Development of Christianity Islam Judaism Christianity and…… Sectarianism.

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Presentation on theme: "RELIGION IN AUSTRALIA PRE 1945 Christianity Islam Judaism The Arrival of… The Development of Christianity Islam Judaism Christianity and…… Sectarianism."— Presentation transcript:

1 RELIGION IN AUSTRALIA PRE 1945 Christianity Islam Judaism The Arrival of… The Development of Christianity Islam Judaism Christianity and…… Sectarianism Social Welfare Rural and Outback Communities Public Morality

2 A few Muslims came to Australia as part of European settlement, either as convicts or sailors. But it was not until the use of camel transportation in Australia that the numbers of Muslims in Australia began to increase. Camel transportation was seen as an effective method of travelling the vast desert areas of the Australian interior. From the 1860s onwards, Muslims came to Australia as camel drivers. Most of these were from modern day Pakistan and Afghanistan. In 1882 the first Islamic mosque was built in Maree, South Australia. In 1890 another mosque was built in Adelaide. During the 1880s and 1890s, Muslims controlled and dominated the camel transportation business in NSW, Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, and Central Australia. During this period there were approximately 3000 Muslims who were working as camel drivers across Australia. The 1920s saw the end of the camel transport industry which meant that many Muslims had to leave Australia. HomeHomeNext

3 Arrival of the First Fleet Christianity arrived in Australia in 1788 as part of the English penal colony of New South Wales. Among the members of this First Fleet were English convicts, most of who belonged to the Church of England and Irish convicts, most of whom were Roman Catholic. The officials in the party were mostly English and the Church of England was regarded as the established religion in New South Wales. Rev Richard Johnson, a Minister of the Church of England was the first Chaplain to the colony. BackNext

4 The Church of England as the Established Church was the largest and most influential. The Church of England enjoyed the patronage of the governing authorities and was extremely influential in a wide range of issues. In the early years of the colony, other denominations also established themselves and began to develop. There were well established communities of Methodists and Presbyterians within a few decades of the colony's beginnings. The Catholic Church was the most troublesome, with its members being constantly in dispute with the English authorities. Catholicism was not permitted to operate formally until Prior to that, informally and with some occasional concessions, the Catholics maintained their faith with fierce loyalty. HomeNext

5 Sectarian division The history of political and religious division between the English and Irish ensured that bitter rivalry continued to affect the life of the colony. The deep religious division known as sectarianism had raged since the days of the reformation in the 16th century and was strongly felt in the colony. HomeNext

6 1169 marked the beginning of more than 700 years of direct Norman and, later, English involvement in Ireland. The English crown did not begin asserting full control of the island until after the English Reformation, when questions over the loyalty of Irish vassals provided the initial impetus for a series of military campaigns between 1534 and This period was also marked by an English policy of plantation which led to the arrival of thousands of English and Scottish Protestant settlers. As the military and political defeat of Gaelic Ireland became more clear in the early seventeenth century, the role of religion as a new division in Ireland became more pronounced. From this period on, sectarian conflict became a recurrent theme in Irish history. HomeNext

7 By the end of the seventeenth century all Catholics, representing some 85% of Ireland's population then, were banned from the Irish parliament. Political power rested entirely in the hands of an Anglo settler-colonial, and more specifically Irish Anglican, minority while the Catholic population suffered severe political and economic privations. In 1801, the Irish Parliament was abolished and Ireland became an integral part of a new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Act of Union. Catholics were still banned from sitting in that new parliament until Catholic Emancipation was attained in 1829, the principal condition of which was the removal of the poorer, and thus more radical, Irish freeholders from the franchise. HomeHomeNext

8 Sectarianism is bigotry, discrimination or hatred arising from attaching importance to perceived differences between subdivisions within a group, such as between different denominations of a religion or the factions of a political movement. HomeNext

9 In 1798 many Irish people, most of whom were Catholics, rebelled against the English who had taken over Ireland and owned most of the land. Many of the Irish rebels were imprisoned, with the result that more convicts and growing numbers of Catholics were transported to Botany Bay. The church services in early Sydney, were conducted by the Church of England and were compulsory for all convicts. In those days, Catholics believed it was wrong to attend another church’s services. Mass for Catholics was not permitted in early days of NSW. It was believed that gatherings of Catholics, most of whom were Irish, would give the convicts an opportunity to cause trouble, so Mass was banned.

10 The first Jews arrived in Australia in 1788, as convicts on the First Fleet. In 1817, the first minyan, that is, a quorum of 10 Jewish men, was formed. The Jewish Burial society, Chevra Kaddisha, was also established. The formation of a minyan and establishment of the Chevra Kaddisha are recognised as the formal beginnings of a functioning Jewish community in New South Wales. Home

11 During the 1830s services were being held regularly in homes such as that of Phillip Joseph Cohen who was also authorised to perform Jewish marriages. This is generally regarded as the first Jewish synagogue. Critical to the acceptance of Cohen's community by the broader Australian community was the fact that that they spoke English unlike most European Jews. In 1830 Aaron Levy became the first Rabbi in Australia. In 1837 the first official synagogue was opened in Bridge St, Sydney with a capacity to seat 100 males and 30 females. In 1844, a permanent synagogue was consecrated in York St, Sydney. The York St synagogue could hold 500 people and was to serve as the centre of Jewish life in Sydney until the Great Synagogue was built in Elizabeth St in 1878 with Alexander Davis as the Chief Rabbi. By the late 1800s there were synagogues in most major cities, however, over 40% of Jews lived in rural areasGreat Synagogue HomeNext Additional Notes More info on 1 st Synagogue

12 Judaism had been present in Tasmania since 1804 with the first synagogue consecrated in Meanwhile, in Victoria, the first congregation was formed in 1843 with a synagogue opening five years later. During the gold rush of the 1850s the number of Jews in Victoria swelled from a few hundred to over Sporadic Jewish worship in South Australia began as early as 1844 with the first synagogue consecrated in In Western Australia no organised Jewish community developed until the end of the nineteenth century even though Jews had lived in Western Australia from 1829 onwards. Home

13 The first Muslims came into contact with the Australian continent prior to white settlement in These visits, which began in the 1750s, were from Macassan fisherman who came from what is known today as Indonesia. Their encounters with the Australian Aborigines were generally friendly and peaceful. The introduction of the Immigration Restriction Act 1901 and the establishment of territorial waters meant that these visits from Macassar came to a total halt by Other Muslims from Indonesia were brought to Australia to work in the pearling industry and sugar plantations during the late nineteenth century. The implementation of the Immigration Restriction Act 1901, meant that many Muslims returned to their homelands. Home

14 A few Muslims came to Australia as part of European settlement, either as convicts or sailors. But it was not until the use of camel transportation in Australia that the numbers of Muslims in Australia began to increase. Camel transportation was seen as an effective method of travelling the vast desert areas of the Australian interior. From the 1860s onwards, Muslims came to Australia as camel drivers. Most of these were from modern day Pakistan and Afghanistan. In 1882 the first Islamic mosque was built in Maree, South Australia. In 1890 another mosque was built in Adelaide. During the 1880s and 1890s, Muslims controlled and dominated the camel transportation business in NSW, Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, and Central Australia. During this period there were approximately 3000 Muslims who were working as camel drivers across Australia. The 1920s saw the end of the camel transport industry which meant that many Muslims had to leave Australia. HomeNext Cameleers Islam in Australia

15 The migration of Muslims from Turkey and Lebanon dates back to the nineteenth century, however, these migrations occurred in relatively small numbers. Muslims from Turkey numbered approximately 300 by But following World War 1, where Australians fought against the Ottomans (Turks) the number of Turkish born Muslims in Australia declined. Home

16 The Great Synagogue Sydney Back


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