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1 © Arthur Shelley 2012 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for.

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Presentation on theme: "1 © Arthur Shelley 2012 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 © Arthur Shelley 2012 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use. Metaphor use in Asia Enhance awareness and increase understanding through metaphor conversations Arthur Shelley RMIT Asia Forum August 8, 2012

2 2 Metaphor Definitions and Examples “A figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance.” “A mighty fortress is our God.” “Something used, or regarded as being used, to represent something else; emblem; symbol.” Dictionary.com “Time is money” or “Argument is war” Lakoff and Johnston (1980) “The Art of War” © Arthur Shelley 2012 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use.

3 3 Metaphor structure and purpose “All the world’s a stage, And all the men and women merely players; They have their exits and their entrances” William Shakespeare, in As You Like It Metaphor is an analogy to use something familiar (the Vehicle) to develop understanding of something less familiar (the Tenor) Metaphor is a figure of speech to aid knowledge transfer and learning through simplification and comparison. © Arthur Shelley 2012 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use. TenorVehicle

4 4 Stories and Metaphor are embedded into our cultures © Arthur Shelley 2012 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use. Christianity and the Bible Australian Aboriginal culture & metaphoric creation dance Buddhist Jataka Tales Arabic culture, Koran, Bedouin culture… Hindu Panchatantra stories Jewish Talmud & Midrash Chinese Cultural Teachings & Zodiac

5 5 © Arthur Shelley 2011 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use. Lion  Aggressive  Command and Control  Territorial  Charismatic or ego-driven  Leads by fear Zoo Leadership Styles

6 6 © Arthur Shelley 2011 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use. Eagle  Inspirational  Above the mire  Great long range vision  Rapid action on opportunities  Great instinct  Strategic  Leads strategically with vision Zoo Leadership Styles

7 7 © Arthur Shelley 2011 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use. Choose your animal appropriately Behaviour is YOUR choice The more versatile you can be and the better you understand and relate to others, the more successful you will be.

8 8 However… Article addressing the effectiveness of metaphors that bridge the gap between a known concept and one that is new to the learner, found that students from the majority culture and those for whom English is a second language can misunderstand metaphors. To communicate clearly pay special attention to the use of metaphors. One challenge to the nurse is effective communication, as the client may not yet have acquired the ability to understand common metaphors. The student who has been educated to be sensitive to these concerns will provide better care for these clients. Marilyn L. Weitzel, Effects of Metaphors for Asian and Majority-Culture Students. Home Health Care Management Practice December 2004 vol. 17 no © Arthur Shelley 2012 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use.

9 9 Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions © Arthur Shelley 2012 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use.

10 10 Behavioural DNA perspectives © Arthur Shelley 2011 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use. Positive contributionNegative contribution Asian Police?

11 11 Cultural perceptions… “East” “Ultimate being” Can mean “Death” Reliability, persistence © Arthur Shelley 2012 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use. “West” Evil icon to be slain Usually Knowledge Stupidity, stubborn Highlight differences in cultural perceptions to increase richness of interactions

12 12 Positively influencing outcomes through metaphor based interactions © Arthur Shelley 2012 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use. Metaphoric reflective conversations

13 13 © Arthur Shelley 2009 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use. Reflective Impact Diary

14 14 Conclusions Metaphor is a powerful tool to stimulate conversations about behaviour and behavioural differences and interactions Reflective conversations stimulated using animals metaphor can work well across cultures PROVIDED the facilitator is sensitive to different cultural perceptions and interpretations Discussing such differences enhances the richness of the interaction and the development of mutual understanding across participants © Arthur Shelley 2012 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use.

15 15 © Arthur Shelley 2011 under Creative Commons License. Available for public use provided source is acknowledged. Permission of the author required for commercial use. Contact Arthur Shelley FREE behavioural profile Insights into behaviours Consulting and mentoring Ph #OrgZoo


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