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Environmental Reforms: Conservation & Preservation

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1 Environmental Reforms: Conservation & Preservation
The Progressive Era: Environmental Reforms: Conservation & Preservation

2 Theodore Roosevelt & Conservation
1st president to take an active role in the American conservation movement Ardent sportsman & naturalist Concerned with exploitation of America’s natural resources & remaining wilderness Theodore Roosevelt

3 Theodore Roosevelt & Conservation
Had a “romantic regard” for the wilderness and & west Using his executive powers as president, he: Restricted private development of millions of acres of underdeveloped land Added most underdeveloped land in the west to the National Forest System Seized many forests & water sites for conservation purposes Theodore Roosevelt

4 1st Chief of the Forest Service, 1905-1910
Gifford Pinchot Appointed as the 1st Chief Forester of the U.S. by President Theodore Roosevelt Supported rational & efficient human use of the wilderness Believed trained experts in forestry & resource management needed to develop & manage the wilderness & national parks Gifford Pinchot 1st Chief of the Forest Service,

5 Roosevelt sends federal aid to the West
Teddy Roosevelt’s natural resource policy won support in Congress National Reclamation Act (Newlands Act) Provided federal funds for the construction of dams, reservoirs, and canals in the West. Projects provided cheap source of electric power Opened new lands for cultivation Provided critical aid for irrigation & power development in western states Bureau of Reclamation established It took about 20 years before positive effects of the Newlands Act took hold

6 Theodore Roosevelt & Preservation
Believed in protecting natural beauty of the land & health of its wildlife from human intrusion Championed the expansion of the National Forest System as a means to protect forests from excess lumbering

7 Antiquities Act of 1906 Roosevelt proclaimed 18 national monuments.
It also established: 5 national parks 51 wildlife refuges 150 national forests Theodore Roosevelt

8 Expansion of the National Park System
Purpose of the National Park System: To protect the land from exploitation or development

9 Federal Lands & Indian Reservations in the United States

10 National Parks in the United States & its Territories

11 The National Park Service National Parks Created by the T
The National Park Service National Parks Created by the T. Roosevelt Administration Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone, Wyoming Yosemite National Park California Yellowstone National Park was the first national park created by Congress in 1872; located in Yellowstone, YW 1890s: Yosemite & Sequoia National Parks established in California Theodore Roosevelt added the following National Parks during his presidency: 1. Mount Rainer National Park Sequoia National Park California Mount Rainer National Park Washington State

12 The National Park Service National Parks Created by the T
The National Park Service National Parks Created by the T. Roosevelt Administration Crater Lake National Park Oregon Mesa Verde National Park Mesa Verde, Colorado Theodore Roosevelt added the following National Parks during his presidency: Crater Lake National Park in Oregon Mesa Verde National Park in Utah Wind Cave National Park in South Dakota Platte National Park in Oklahoma, renamed the Chicksaw National Recreation Area Chicksaw National Recreation Area Oklahoma (Formerly Platte National Park) Wind Cave National Park South Dakota

13 Yosemite National Park
Yosemite National Park was set aside in 1864 by Abraham Lincoln in order to allow the public to enjoy Yosemite Valley's high waterfalls, deep cliffs, open meadows, and oak woodlands as well as the Mariposa Grove's massive and ancient giant sequoias. When it became a national park in 1890, it was expanded to include Tuolumne Meadows and the high country. Mirror Lake, Yosemite National Park

14 Yosemite National Park

15 Yosemite National Park

16 Sequoia National Park

17 Sequoia National Park

18 Mesa Verde National Park

19 Theodore Roosevelt & John Muir
1903—Muir & Roosevelt spent 9 days in the Sierras at Yosemite National Park Both forged a bond formed mutual respect for one another Muir convinced Roosevelt to expand national parks & forests as well as increase the acreage of Yosemite National Park Though an all, Roosevelt, who was in favor of economic development, not always a reliable ally of Muir (i.e. The Hetch Hetchy Controversy) President Theodore Roosevelt (left) and John Muir had long talks about conservation while camping together at Glacier Point, Yosemite National Park, Roosevelt galvanized Progressive conservation and Muir galvanized the preservation movement. Their meeting of the minds symbolizes the environmental leadership the 21st century will increasingly ask of the National Park Service. (Library of Congress photo). Theodore Roosevelt (left) & John Muir (right) at Yosemite National Park

20 Founder of the Sierra Club
Sierra Club founded on May 28 with 182 charter members. John Muir elected first President. In its first conservation campaign, Club leads effort to defeat a proposed reduction in the boundaries of Yosemite National Park (Hetch Hetchy Dam Project). John Muir Founder of the Sierra Club

21 The Sierra Club Mission Statement
1.Explore, enjoy and protect the wild places of the earth. 2.Practice and promote the responsible use of the earth's ecosystems and resources. 3.Educate and enlist humanity to protect and restore the quality of the natural and human environment. 4.Use all lawful means to carry out these objectives.

22 The Hetch Hetchy Controversey
Hetch Hetchy Valley located in Yosemite National Park Hetch Hetchy—local Indian term meaning “grassy meadows” High-walled valley popular with naturalists, such as the Sierra Club

23 Hetch Hetchy Valley

24 The Hetch Hetchy Controversey
Issue: Water Shortage in San Francisco Residents worried about finding enough water to serve growing population They saw Hetch Hetchy as an ideal place for a dam—which would create an a large reservoir for the city Muir, Sierra Club, & the naturalists oppose the plan to build a dam & reservoir

25 The Hetch Hetchy Controversy
1906—San Francisco suffered devastating earthquake & fire Widespread sympathy for the city strengthened case for building the dam Teddy Roosevelt sympathized with San Francisco Originally opposed the plan, but later decided that building a dam was a practical solution to the water shortage & would benefit society as a whole Turned decision over to Gifford Pinchot, who ordered the dam’s construction

26 The Hetch Hetchy Controversy
John Muir staunchly opposed the construction of the Hetch Hetchy Dam In 1908—the construction of the dam was brought to a public vote (referendum) Muir hoped the public would oppose the plan However, residents of San Francisco overwhelmingly approved construction of the dam Defeat helped mobilize a new coalition of people committed to the preservation of wilderness lands and made it clear that casual exploitation of natural wonders would no longer be opposed

27 The Hetch Hetchy Dam & Reservoir
Hetch Hetchy's O'Shaughnessy Dam (completed 1923; enl. 1938) turned the valley into a lake 9 mi (14 km) long, which is used for generating power and for supplying water to San Francisco by an aqueduct 156 mi (251 km) long.

28 Hetch Hetchy Dam

29 Reviewing Environmental Reforms
Why were environmental reforms, conservation & preservation, important to the American people during the Progressive Era? In your opinion, were environmental reforms during the Progressive Era a success or failure? Explain your answer. What was impact did Environmental Reforms during the Progressive Era have on future generations?

30 The Legacy of Theodore Roosevelt’s Conservation & Preservation Efforts
The North Dakota badlands provides the scenic backdrop to the park which memorializes the 26th president for his enduring contributions to the conservation of our nation's resources. The area was first established as a Memorial Park in 1947. It gained National Park status in 1978. The Little Missouri River has shaped this 70,448-acre park which is home to a variety of plants and animals.

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