2Theodore Roosevelt & Conservation 1st president to take an active role in the American conservation movementArdent sportsman & naturalistConcerned with exploitation of America’s natural resources & remaining wildernessTheodore Roosevelt
3Theodore Roosevelt & Conservation Had a “romantic regard” for the wilderness and & westUsing his executive powers as president, he:Restricted private development of millions of acres of underdeveloped landAdded most underdeveloped land in the west to the National Forest SystemSeized many forests & water sites for conservation purposesTheodore Roosevelt
41st Chief of the Forest Service, 1905-1910 Gifford PinchotAppointed as the 1st Chief Forester of the U.S. by President Theodore RooseveltSupported rational & efficient human use of the wildernessBelieved trained experts in forestry & resource management needed to develop & manage the wilderness & national parksGifford Pinchot1st Chief of the Forest Service,
5Roosevelt sends federal aid to the West Teddy Roosevelt’s natural resource policy won support in CongressNational Reclamation Act (Newlands Act)Provided federal funds for the construction of dams, reservoirs, and canals in the West.Projects provided cheap source of electric powerOpened new lands for cultivationProvided critical aid for irrigation & power development in western statesBureau of Reclamation establishedIt took about 20 years before positive effects of the Newlands Act took hold
6Theodore Roosevelt & Preservation Believed in protecting natural beauty of the land & health of its wildlife from human intrusionChampioned the expansion of the National Forest System as a means to protect forests from excess lumbering
7Antiquities Act of 1906 Roosevelt proclaimed 18 national monuments. It also established:5 national parks51 wildlife refuges150 national forestsTheodore Roosevelt
8Expansion of the National Park System Purpose of the National Park System:To protect the land from exploitation or development
9Federal Lands & Indian Reservations in the United States
10National Parks in the United States & its Territories
11The National Park Service National Parks Created by the T The National Park Service National Parks Created by the T. Roosevelt AdministrationYellowstone National ParkYellowstone, WyomingYosemite National ParkCaliforniaYellowstone National Park was the first national park created by Congress in 1872; located in Yellowstone, YW1890s: Yosemite & Sequoia National Parks established in CaliforniaTheodore Roosevelt added the following National Parks during his presidency:1. Mount Rainer National ParkSequoia National ParkCaliforniaMount Rainer National ParkWashington State
12The National Park Service National Parks Created by the T The National Park Service National Parks Created by the T. Roosevelt AdministrationCrater Lake National ParkOregonMesa Verde National ParkMesa Verde, ColoradoTheodore Roosevelt added the following National Parks during his presidency:Crater Lake National Park in OregonMesa Verde National Park in UtahWind Cave National Park in South DakotaPlatte National Park in Oklahoma, renamed the Chicksaw National Recreation AreaChicksaw National Recreation AreaOklahoma (Formerly Platte National Park)Wind Cave National ParkSouth Dakota
13Yosemite National Park Yosemite National Park was set aside in 1864 by Abraham Lincoln in order to allow the public to enjoy Yosemite Valley's high waterfalls, deep cliffs, open meadows, and oak woodlands as well as the Mariposa Grove's massive and ancient giant sequoias. When it became a national park in 1890, it was expanded to include Tuolumne Meadows and the high country.Mirror Lake, Yosemite National Park
19Theodore Roosevelt & John Muir 1903—Muir & Roosevelt spent 9 days in the Sierras at Yosemite National ParkBoth forged a bond formed mutual respect for one anotherMuir convinced Roosevelt to expand national parks & forests as well as increase the acreage of Yosemite National ParkThough an all, Roosevelt, who was in favor of economic development, not always a reliable ally of Muir (i.e. The Hetch Hetchy Controversy)President Theodore Roosevelt (left) and John Muir had long talks about conservation while camping together at Glacier Point, Yosemite National Park, Roosevelt galvanized Progressive conservation and Muir galvanized the preservation movement. Their meeting of the minds symbolizes the environmental leadership the 21st century will increasingly ask of the National Park Service. (Library of Congress photo).Theodore Roosevelt (left)& John Muir (right) at YosemiteNational Park
20Founder of the Sierra Club Sierra Club founded on May 28 with 182 charter members.John Muir elected first President.In its first conservation campaign, Club leads effort to defeat a proposed reduction in the boundaries of Yosemite National Park (Hetch Hetchy Dam Project).John MuirFounder of the Sierra Club
21The Sierra Club Mission Statement 1.Explore, enjoy and protect the wild places of the earth.2.Practice and promote the responsible use of the earth's ecosystems and resources.3.Educate and enlist humanity to protect and restore the quality of the natural and human environment.4.Use all lawful means to carry out these objectives.
22The Hetch Hetchy Controversey Hetch Hetchy Valley located in Yosemite National ParkHetch Hetchy—local Indian term meaning “grassy meadows”High-walled valley popular with naturalists, such as the Sierra Club
24The Hetch Hetchy Controversey Issue: Water Shortage in San FranciscoResidents worried about finding enough water to serve growing populationThey saw Hetch Hetchy as an ideal place for a dam—which would create an a large reservoir for the cityMuir, Sierra Club, & the naturalists oppose the plan to build a dam & reservoir
25The Hetch Hetchy Controversy 1906—San Francisco suffered devastating earthquake & fireWidespread sympathy for the city strengthened case for building the damTeddy Roosevelt sympathized with San FranciscoOriginally opposed the plan, but later decided that building a dam was a practical solution to the water shortage & would benefit society as a wholeTurned decision over to Gifford Pinchot, who ordered the dam’s construction
26The Hetch Hetchy Controversy John Muir staunchly opposed the construction of the Hetch Hetchy DamIn 1908—the construction of the dam was brought to a public vote (referendum)Muir hoped the public would oppose the planHowever, residents of San Francisco overwhelmingly approved construction of the damDefeat helped mobilize a new coalition of people committed to the preservation of wilderness lands and made it clear that casual exploitation of natural wonders would no longer be opposed
27The Hetch Hetchy Dam & Reservoir Hetch Hetchy's O'Shaughnessy Dam (completed 1923; enl. 1938) turned the valley into a lake 9 mi (14 km) long, which is used for generating power and for supplying water to San Francisco by an aqueduct 156 mi (251 km) long.
29Reviewing Environmental Reforms Why were environmental reforms, conservation & preservation, important to the American people during the Progressive Era?In your opinion, were environmental reforms during the Progressive Era a success or failure? Explain your answer.What was impact did Environmental Reforms during the Progressive Era have on future generations?
30The Legacy of Theodore Roosevelt’s Conservation & Preservation Efforts The North Dakota badlands provides the scenic backdrop to the park which memorializes the 26th president for his enduring contributions to the conservation of our nation's resources.The area was first established as a Memorial Park in 1947.It gained National Park status in 1978.The Little Missouri River has shaped this 70,448-acre park which is home to a variety of plants and animals.