Presentation on theme: "PPM T CE 408T Engr. Faisal-ur-Rehman CED NWFP UETP."— Presentation transcript:
PPM T CE 408T Engr. Faisal-ur-Rehman CED NWFP UETP
Presentation Outline Definition of Project and Project Management Project vs Operational Work vs Strategic Planning Area of Expertise and its Description Project Management Context – Program, Portfolio, Subproject and PMO Project Life Cycle Project Stakeholder Organization System
Definitions Definition of Project Definition of Project Management
Project vs Operational Work They share many of the following characteristics: – Performed by people – Constrained by limited resources – Planned, executed, and controlled. Projects and operations differ primarily in that operations are ongoing and repetitive, while projects are temporary and unique.
Project vs Operational Work The objectives of projects and operations are fundamentally different. The purpose of a project is to attain its objective and then terminate. Conversely, the objective of an ongoing operation is to sustain the business. Projects are different because the project concludes when its specific objectives have been attained, while operations adopt a new set of objectives and the work continues. Projects are undertaken at all levels of the organization and they can involve a single person or many thousands. Their duration ranges from a few weeks to several years. Projects can involve one or many organizational units, such as joint ventures and partnerships.
Project vs Operational Work Examples of projects include, but are not limited to: – Developing a new product or service – Effecting a change in structure, staffing, or style of an organization – Designing a new transportation vehicle – Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system – Constructing a building or facility – Building a water system for a community – Running a campaign for political office – Implementing a new business procedure or process – Responding to a contract solicitation.
Projects and Strategic Planning Projects are a means of organizing activities that cannot be addressed within the organizations normal operational limits. Projects are, therefore, often utilized as a means of achieving an organizations strategic plan, whether the project team is employed by the organization or is a contracted service provider.
Area of Expertise Needed
The Project Environment There are social, economic, and environmental context for a Project They have intended and unintended positive and/or negative impacts. The project team should consider the project in its cultural, social, international, political, and physical environmental contexts.
The Project Environment Cultural and social environment. The team needs to understand how the project affects people and how people affect the project. – This may require an understanding of aspects of the economic, demographic, educational, ethical, ethnic, religious, and other characteristics of the people whom the project affects or who may have an interest in the project. International and political environment. Some team members may need to be familiar with applicable international, national, regional, and local laws and customs, as well as the political climate that could affect the project. – Other international factors to consider are time-zone differences, national and regional holidays, travel requirements for face-to-face meetings, and the logistics of teleconferencing. Physical environment. If the project will affect its physical surroundings, some team members should be knowledgeable about the local ecology and physical geography that could affect the project or be affected by the project.
General Management Knowledge and Skills General management encompasses planning, organizing, staffing, executing, and controlling the operations of an ongoing enterprise. It includes supporting disciplines such as: Financial management and accounting Purchasing and procurement Sales and marketing Contracts and commercial law Manufacturing and distribution Logistics and supply chain Strategic planning, tactical planning, and operational planning Organizational structures, organizational behavior, personnel administration, compensation, benefits, and career paths Health and safety practices Information technology.
Interpersonal Skills The management of interpersonal relationships includes: Effective communication. The exchange of information Influencing the organization. The ability to get things done Leadership. Developing a vision and strategy, and motivating people to achieve that vision and strategy Motivation. Energizing people to achieve high levels of performance and to overcome barriers to change Negotiation and conflict management. Conferring with others to come to terms with them or to reach an agreement Problem solving. The combination of problem definition, alternatives identification and analysis, and decision-making.
Project Management Context Programs and Program Management – A program is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. – Programs may include elements of related work outside of the scope of the discrete projects in the program. For example: ????
Project Management Context Portfolios and Portfolio Management – A portfolio is a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. – The projects or programs in the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related. – Funding and support can be assigned on the basis of risk/reward categories, specific lines of business, or general types of projects, such as infrastructure and internal process improvement.
Project Management Context Subprojects – Projects are frequently divided into more manageable components or subprojects, although the individual subprojects can be referred to as projects and managed as such. – Subprojects are often contracted to an external enterprise or to another functional unit in the performing organization.
Project Management Context Project Management Office – A project management office (PMO) is an organizational unit to centralize and coordinate the management of projects under its domain. – Features???
Project Life Cycle Project life cycles generally define: What technical work to do in each phase (for example, in which phase should the architects work be performed?) When the deliverables are to be generated in each phase and how each deliverable is reviewed, verified, and validated Who is involved in each phase (for example, concurrent engineering requires that the implementers be involved with requirements and design) How to control and approve each phase.
Project Life Cycle Project life cycle descriptions can be very general or very detailed. Highly detailed descriptions of life cycles can include forms, charts, and checklists to provide structure and control. Most project life cycles share a number of common characteristics: – Phases are generally sequential and are usually defined by some form of technical information transfer or technical component handoff. – Cost and staffing levels are low at the start, peak during the intermediate phases, and drop rapidly as the project draws to a conclusion. Figure 2-1 illustrates this pattern.
Project Life Cycle
Relationship Between the Product and the Project Life Cycles
Project manager. The person responsible for managing the project. Customer/user. The person or organization that will use the projects product. There may be multiple layers of customers. For example, the customers for a new pharmaceutical product can include the doctors who prescribe it, the patients who take it and the insurers who pay for it. In some application areas, customer and user are synonymous, while in others, customer refers to the entity acquiring the projects product and users are those who will directly utilize the projects product. Performing organization. The enterprise whose employees are most directly nvolved in doing the work of the project. Project team members. The group that is performing the work of the project.
Project Stakeholders Project management team. The members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities. Sponsor. The person or group that provides the financial resources, in cash or in kind, for the project. Influencers. People or groups that are not directly related to the acquisition or use of the projects product, but due to an individuals position in the customer organization or performing organization, can influence, positively or negatively, the course of the project. PMO. If it exists in the performing organization, the PMO can be a stakeholder if it has direct or indirect responsibility for the outcome of theproject.
Project Stakeholders In addition to these key stakeholders, there are many different names and categories of project stakeholders, including internal and external, owners and investors, sellers and contractors, team members and their families, government agencies and media outlets, individual citizens, temporary or permanent lobbying organizations, and society-at-large. The naming or grouping of stakeholders is primarily an aid to identifying which individuals and organizations view themselves as stakeholders. Stakeholder roles and responsibilities can overlap, such as when an engineering firm provides financing for a plant that it is designing. Project managers must manage stakeholder expectations, which can be difficult because stakeholders often have very different or conflicting objectives.
Organization System Organizations that derive their revenue primarily from performing projects for others under contract. e.g??? Organizations that have adopted management by projects. These organizations tend to have management systems in place to facilitate project management.