2Presentation Outline Definition of Project and Project Management Project vs Operational Work vs Strategic PlanningArea of Expertise and its DescriptionProject Management ContextProgram, Portfolio, Subproject and PMOProject Life CycleProject StakeholderOrganization System
3DefinitionsDefinition of ProjectDefinition of Project Management
4Project vs Operational Work They share many of the following characteristics:Performed by peopleConstrained by limited resourcesPlanned, executed, and controlled.Projects and operations differ primarily in that operations are ongoing and repetitive, while projects are temporary and unique.
5Project vs Operational Work The objectives of projects and operations are fundamentally different. The purpose of a project is to attain its objective and then terminate.Conversely, the objective of an ongoing operation is to sustain the business. Projects are different because the project concludes when its specific objectives have been attained, while operations adopt a new set of objectives and the work continues.Projects are undertaken at all levels of the organization and they can involve a single person or many thousands. Their duration ranges from a few weeks to several years.Projects can involve one or many organizational units, such as joint ventures and partnerships.
6Project vs Operational Work Examples of projects include, but are not limited to:Developing a new product or serviceEffecting a change in structure, staffing, or style of an organizationDesigning a new transportation vehicleDeveloping or acquiring a new or modified information systemConstructing a building or facilityBuilding a water system for a communityRunning a campaign for political officeImplementing a new business procedure or processResponding to a contract solicitation.
7Projects and Strategic Planning Projects are a means of organizing activities that cannot be addressed within the organization’s normal operational limits. Projects are, therefore, often utilized as a means of achieving an organization’s strategic plan, whether the project team is employed by the organization or is a contracted service provider.
9The Project Environment There are social, economic, and environmental context for a ProjectThey have intended and unintended positive and/or negative impacts. The project team should consider the project in its cultural, social, international, political, and physical environmental contexts.
10The Project Environment Cultural and social environment. The team needs to understand how the project affects people and how people affect the project.This may require an understanding of aspects of the economic, demographic, educational, ethical, ethnic, religious, and other characteristics of the people whom the project affects or who may have an interest in the project.International and political environment. Some team members may need to be familiar with applicable international, national, regional, and local laws and customs, as well as the political climate that could affect the project.Other international factors to consider are time-zone differences, national and regional holidays, travel requirements for face-to-face meetings, and the logistics of teleconferencing.Physical environment. If the project will affect its physical surroundings, some team members should be knowledgeable about the local ecology and physical geography that could affect the project or be affected by the project.
11General Management Knowledge and Skills General management encompasses planning, organizing, staffing, executing, and controlling the operations of an ongoing enterprise. It includes supporting disciplines such as:Financial management and accountingPurchasing and procurementSales and marketingContracts and commercial lawManufacturing and distributionLogistics and supply chainStrategic planning, tactical planning, and operational planningOrganizational structures, organizational behavior, personnel administration,compensation, benefits, and career pathsHealth and safety practicesInformation technology.
12Interpersonal SkillsThe management of interpersonal relationships includes:Effective communication. The exchange of informationInfluencing the organization. The ability to “get things done”Leadership. Developing a vision and strategy, and motivating people to achieve that vision and strategyMotivation. Energizing people to achieve high levels of performance and to overcome barriers to changeNegotiation and conflict management. Conferring with others to come to terms with them or to reach an agreementProblem solving. The combination of problem definition, alternatives identification and analysis, and decision-making.
13Project Management Context Programs and Program ManagementA program is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually .Programs may include elements of related work outside of the scope of the discrete projects in the program. For example: ????
14Project Management Context Portfolios and Portfolio ManagementA portfolio is a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives.The projects or programs in the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related.Funding and support can be assigned on the basis of risk/reward categories, specific lines of business, or general types of projects, such as infrastructure and internal process improvement.
15Project Management Context SubprojectsProjects are frequently divided into more manageable components or subprojects, although the individual subprojects can be referred to as projects and managed as such.Subprojects are often contracted to an external enterprise or to another functional unit in the performing organization.
16Project Management Context Project Management OfficeA project management office (PMO) is an organizational unit to centralize and coordinate the management of projects under its domain.Features???
17Project Life Cycle Project life cycles generally define: What technical work to do in each phase (for example, in which phase should the architect’s work be performed?)When the deliverables are to be generated in each phase and how each deliverable is reviewed, verified, and validatedWho is involved in each phase (for example, concurrent engineering requires that the implementers be involved with requirements and design)How to control and approve each phase.
18Project Life CycleProject life cycle descriptions can be very general or very detailed. Highly detailed descriptions of life cycles can include forms, charts, and checklists to provide structure and control. Most project life cycles share a number of common characteristics:Phases are generally sequential and are usually defined by some form of technical information transfer or technical component handoff.Cost and staffing levels are low at the start, peak during the intermediate phases, and drop rapidly as the project draws to a conclusion. Figure 2-1 illustrates this pattern.
24Project StakeholdersProject manager. The person responsible for managing the project.Customer/user. The person or organization that will use the project’s product. There may be multiple layers of customers. For example, the customers for a new pharmaceutical product can include the doctors who prescribe it, the patients who take it and the insurers who pay for it. In some application areas, customer and user are synonymous, while in others, customer refers to the entity acquiring the project’s product and users are those who will directly utilize the project’s product.Performing organization. The enterprise whose employees are most directly nvolved in doing the work of the project.Project team members. The group that is performing the work of the project.
25Project StakeholdersProject management team. The members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities.Sponsor. The person or group that provides the financial resources, in cash or in kind, for the project.Influencers. People or groups that are not directly related to the acquisition or use of the project’s product, but due to an individual’s position in the customer organization or performing organization, can influence, positively or negatively, the course of the project.PMO. If it exists in the performing organization, the PMO can be a stakeholder if it has direct or indirect responsibility for the outcome of theproject.
26Project StakeholdersIn addition to these key stakeholders, there are many different names and categories of project stakeholders, including internal and external, owners and investors, sellers and contractors, team members and their families, government agencies and media outlets, individual citizens, temporary or permanent lobbying organizations, and society-at-large.The naming or grouping of stakeholders is primarily an aid to identifying which individuals and organizations view themselves as stakeholders.Stakeholder roles and responsibilities can overlap, such as when an engineering firm provides financing for a plant that it is designing.Project managers must manage stakeholder expectations, which can be difficult because stakeholders often have very different or conflicting objectives.
27Organization SystemOrganizations that derive their revenue primarily from performing projects for others under contract. e.g???Organizations that have adopted management by projects. These organizations tend to have management systems in place to facilitate project management.