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Writing and Editing for Electronic Media Week 2: Audience issues.

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1 Writing and Editing for Electronic Media Week 2: Audience issues

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3 Early site not Mac compatible Graphics, multiple windows and Flash animations required 56k modem: which only 1% of EU home users and 2% of US home users had. Site required Macromedia’s Flash plugin which few had at launch Early site not Mac compatible Graphics, multiple windows and Flash animations required 56k modem: which only 1% of EU home users and 2% of US home users had. Site required Macromedia’s Flash plugin which few had at launch BOO’s Woes

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5 First FM radio station, 1941 Digital radio licensed by US Federal Communications Commission, Oct years First FM radio station, 1941 Digital radio licensed by US Federal Communications Commission, Oct years Longer established media ubiquitous

6 Oxford Internet Survey, 2005 Dutton, W.H., di Gennaro, C. and Millwood Hargrave, A. (2005) Oxford Internet Survey 2005 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

7 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

8 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

9 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

10 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

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12 S-Curve Pattern of Adoption: Growth Pattern for Many successful technologies S-Curve Pattern of Adoption: Growth Pattern for Many successful technologies

13 UK households with Internet access , showing S-curve pattern of adoption Source: Office of National Statistics, October 2003

14 Standard adoption categories n Innovators n Early adopters n Early majority n Late majority n Laggards

15 Netscape users, by version (Source: useit.com)

16 theSun.co.uk n IE v6+ n Flash v7 n Internet

17 theSun.co.uk n IE v6+ (77%) n Flash v7 (60%) n home (44%) n = 22% UK population (Example uses figures from 2004)

18 bbc.co.uk/sport n Shockwave v10 n Released 25 March 2004 n <3 months before Euro 2004

19 Early CD-i titles n Caesar’s World of Gambling n Palm Springs Open n Sporting News Baseball n Audubon’s Birds of North America n Stamps: Windows on the World n Time-Life Photography

20 BBC Multimedia CD-Roms (launched 1996) n Noddy n Live & Kicking: Show maker n Mastermind n Pingu – A barrel of fun n Wallace & Gromit: Cracking animator / funpack n Doctor Who: Destiny of the Doctors n Attenborough’s Antartica n Result (Sports Quiz)

21 Personality variables (early adopters) n Greater empathy n Less dogmatic n Better at dealing with abstractions n More rational n Greater intelligence n More favourable attitude to change n Better able to cope with uncertainly n More favourable attitude to science

22 Personality variables (early adopters) n Less fatalistic n Higher aspirations (educational, professional) n More socially participative / connected n More cosmopolitan n Greater exposure to change agents / media n Quicker to seek & find info about innovations n Higher degree of opinion leadership

23 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 n % UK households with Internet access n % of men, % of women who use Internet n Internet use by education: % ‘basic’; % ‘further’; % ‘higher’. n % of those who are disabled n % individuals who currently use Internet n % individuals who have never used Internet n % of those earning <£12,500 who use Internet n % ditto for £12,500-£25,000 n % ditto for £50,000+ n % of those age who use Internet n % of those age who use Internet n % of those age who use Internet n % of those age 75+ who use Internet

24 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

25 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

26 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

27 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

28 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 n 66% UK households with Internet access n 70% of men, 65% of women n Internet use by education: 55% ‘basic’; 78% ‘further’; 90% ‘higher’. n 36% of those who are disabled n 67% individuals who currently use Internet n 28% individuals who have never used Internet n 39% of those earning <£12,500 who use Internet n 64% ditto for £12,500-£25,000 n 91% ditto for £50,000+ n 86% of those age who use Internet n 58% of those age who use Internet n 37% of those age who use Internet n 24% of those age 75+ who use Internet

29 DeFleur’s psychodynamic model of stimulus-response DeFleur’s psychodynamic model of stimulus-response

30 An early mass communications model

31 Two step model of media influence

32 Berelson’s findings People read newspapers for: * Info about & interpretation of public affairs * As a tool for daily life * For respite * For social prestige * For social contact People read newspapers for: * Info about & interpretation of public affairs * As a tool for daily life * For respite * For social prestige * For social contact

33 What you really need?

34 Adults who have accessed the Internet by purpose of Internet use (for personal use). Source: Office of National Statistics, Feburary 2003

35 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

36 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

37 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

38 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

39 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

40 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

41 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

42 Oxford Internet Survey, 2007 Dutton, W.H., and Helsper, H. (2007) Oxford Internet Survey 2007 Report: The Internet in Britain (Oxford Internet Institute), url:

43 Audience research Panel based measures, e.g. Nielsen//Netratings, Comscore MediaMetrix Server logs: Internal : google analytics, etc. ‘Audited’ : ABCe.org.uk Panel based measures, e.g. Nielsen//Netratings, Comscore MediaMetrix Server logs: Internal : google analytics, etc. ‘Audited’ : ABCe.org.uk


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