Presentation on theme: "Best Practices for Backing Up Your System Luca Ravazzolo Technology Architect."— Presentation transcript:
Best Practices for Backing Up Your System Luca Ravazzolo Technology Architect
Cold file-level backup Caché shutdown Server-level copy to disk/tape Caché restarted Caché online backup Caché’s backup tool copies data blocks from CACHE.DAT files to disk file or tape. Full or various incremental backups Types of backups
SAN or disk array backup Backup I/O stays within the SAN or the array Block level copy from device to device (disk, tape, virtual tape) All vendors have some type of software to control backups. To backup a consistent image, a point-in-time snapshot or clone is made of the source device. Types of backups
CDP: Continuous Data Protection (Near-CDP) Use of separate appliance to journal changes out-of- band allowing for recovery to any point-in-time, Depending on space available can restore to most any point-in-time. SAN-based Replication Provides a disk-to-disk copy within the SAN, perhaps over long distances, Destination can be archived to tape. Types of backups: others
Advantages and Challenges
Advantages: Caché stays up, users continue to work Simple to implement, may not need 3 rd party software Challenges: Only backs up the CACHE.DAT data – must also backup journals, other files. Restores typically take multiple steps Create a Caché instance Restore “*.cbk” files from storage Apply most recent full backup, then cumulative & incrementals Apply journal files Caché online backup
Advantages: Point-in-time copy of all data (Caché and otherwise) Requires no downtime (when using Caché write daemon freeze and thaw) Challenges: Requires snap/clone technology Requires additional software to coordinate Disk array/SAN-based snapshot
Advantages CDP allows restore to nearly any point-in-time Replication allows geographically separated backups Challenges Non-Caché technologies require coordination with Caché, i.e. May end up with Caché in a crash-consistent state and require recovery before use Requires appliances and software CDP or replication
External Backup Coordinating with Caché
For a consistent database image on your backup media (i.e. a CACHE.DAT without integrity errors) the write daemon’s cycle must be complete. Use the Backup.General.ExternalFreeze() method Keeps write daemon from writing Waits for current write daemon cycle (if active) to finish Switches journal file Logs information to the cconsole.log file. Freeze the write daemon(s)
ExternalFreeze command: OS command returns a code: 5 – successful 3 - failure While frozen, all updates are made as usual to database cache Processes continue to run normally UNLESS: Available buffers in the database cache falls too low. The ExternalFreeze lasts longer than the default limit (600 seconds) Freezing the write daemon %SYS>SET rc=##class(Backup.General).ExternalFreeze() #csession cache –U%SYS “##class(Backup.General).ExternalFreeze()” #echo $?
Use Backup.General.ExternalThaw to allow write daemon(s) to resume writing. Thaw command: OS-level command returns one of these codes: 5 – success 3 - failure Thaw the write daemon %SYS>SET rc=##class(Backup.General).ExternalThaw() #csession cache –U%SYS “##class(Backup.General).ExternalThaw()” #echo $?
Use Backup.General.ExternalSetHistory to log successful backups in the Backup History log is name of an externally created backup log desc is free text Another useful method %SYS>SET log=“/var/logs/backup.log”,desc=“Full Backup” %SYS>S rc=##class(Backup.General).ExternalSetHistory(log,desc)
The operating system user that executes the freeze/thaw command must have access to Caché. In normal install, the “backup” user must be a Caché user. %Service_Terminal must allow OS-level authentication. Caché “backup” user needs RW on the %DB_CACHESYS resource as well as use of %Admin_Operate and %Service_Terminal Who runs the freeze/thaw?
Case Study: External Backup Using snapshots, a de-duplication appliance and replication for an external backup of Caché
External backup 1: Caché & snaps Invoke script on server running Caché to FREEZE write daemon Invoke script on server running Caché to THAW write daemon Backup software initiates the backup process from media server MEDIA Backup software initiates clone or snapshot of all Caché arrays MEDIA
External backup 2: Mount & copy Backup software mounts snapshot on the media server MEDIA Backup software does file level copy from snapshot to disk-based backup appliance. MEDIA Backup releases the snapshot via command- line interface call to disk controller MEDIA
Ext Backup 3: Replicate, verify & archive In secondary data center, replicated backup is restored, mounted in a Caché instance and an integrity check is run to verify structural integrity. Depending on space and policy backup is kept online and/or archived to tape for long term storage. Backup software initiates a backup copy to a secondary data center MEDIA
Timings and best practices Backup software initiates the backup process from media server MEDIA Backup software: Must be able to call freeze/thaw script on Caché server Must be able to initiate the snapshot Most commercial backup software will work well including EMC Networker, Symantec NetBackup, IBM Tivoli (TSM), etc.
Timings and best practices Invoke script on server running Caché to FREEZE write daemon 04/02-02:30:00 (1098) 0 ExternalFreeze: Suspending system 04/02-02:30:00 (1098) 0 ExternalFreeze: Description: Backup Performed by TSM at: :30:00 04/02-02:30:01 (1098) 0 ExernalFreeze: Start a journal restore for this backup with journal file: /jrn/ /02-02:30:02 (1098) 0 ExernalFreeze: System suspended Sample scripts available from the WRC Time to freeze and return depends on Database activity Current write daemon phase (i.e. is it writing to disk?)
Timings and best practices Backup software initiates clone or snapshot of all Caché arrays MEDIA Creating the clone or snap - this period is when write daemon(s) are frozen. Timing is based on array controller activity If greater than a few minutes there is a risk of running into freeze timeout. 04/02-02:30:02 (1098) 0 ExernalFreeze: System suspended 04/02-02:30:52 (9109) 0 ExternalThaw: Resuming system 50 seconds frozen with IBM DS5300 using FlashCopy on a few TB of data with active systems
Timings and best practices Invoke script on server running Caché to THAW write daemon Thawing the write daemon takes seconds at most. Best practice is to be sure to thaw the database on any error along the way. Perhaps have an independent job to check database status and thaw if frozen---so a failed backup will never leave Caché frozen.
External backup 2: Mount & copy Backup software mounts snapshot on the media server MEDIA Backup software does file level copy from snapshot to disk-based backup appliance. MEDIA Use of a de-duplication appliance as the file- level backup target speeds backup and saves space. Timings vary a lot here---disk used, dedupe rate etc.
Ext Backup 3: Replicate, verify & archive Backup software initiates a backup copy to a secondary data center MEDIA SAN level replication or replication via de- duplication appliance. Timings vary a lot here based on bandwidth and de-dupe rate if applicable.
Ext Backup 3: Replicate, verify & archive In secondary data center, replicated backup is restored, mounted in a Caché instance and an integrity check is run to verify structural integrity. Depending on space and policy backup is kept online and/or archived to tape for long term storage. Integrity checks vary in timing Another option is to have media server in primary data center run the check.
Considering cost and effort, Caché online backup works well for small to medium size databases (~ 100s of GB total) with generous RTOs Use InterSystems Mirroring in conjunction with your backup mechanism. Perhaps there will be no need to restore a backup If needed, the mirror destination will have CACHE.DAT files and journal files. Final points
Backup should have minimal impact on live database Using SAN/disk controller based backups offloads the work to other appliances/servers SAN/disk-based backups meet the fastest RTOs. Restore from backup RPOs are as good as the most recently available journal file. Final points
Best Practices for Backing Up Your System Luca Ravazzolo Technology Architect