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Designing a theme park Forces

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Designing A Theme Park If we are going to design theme park rides we have to be able to recognise the forces acting on our rollercoaster

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The Nemesis

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Oblivion

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Spinball Whizzer

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TH13TEEN

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Forces Lesson objective: Recognise the forces acting on an object in different situations Success Criteria Level 6- Predict the effects of forces Level 5- Describe the effects of forces on different objects Level 4- Identify different forces acting on an object and label them on a diagram Level 3 - Know what a force can do

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**How are forces linked to theme park rides?**

Opening question

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What are forces? 4 minutes to work in a group to write as many forces down as you can in your book as a spider diagram. …Go!! Forces

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**What did you come up with?**

Weight Push Magnetism Upthrust Air resistance Gravity Friction Pull Water resistance Electrostatic

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**Label the Forces Air Resistance Magnetism Friction water resistance**

Upthrust Friction Gravity

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**Arrows are used to show the direction of each force acting on an object**

Arrows can be bigger if that force is greater than other forces i.e. the size of the arrow represents the size of the force

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What have I Learnt? Draw a brain write three things you have learnt inside of your brain Write around the outside of the brain what you are confused with or want to know more about Plenary

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Forces Lesson 2

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**Bell work Spot the difference between the two pictures Magnetism**

Gravity Gravity Friction Friction Upthrust water resistance water resistance Magnetism Magnetism Upthrust Air Resistance

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Forces in action You are to investigate the affects of forces in 6 different situations You have 2 mins at each station to do the activity, identify the force and describe what affect it has

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**Balanced or unbalanced forces**

Lesson 3

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Bell work Write down in the back of your book as many 3 or more letter words you can make from the following words Unbalanced forces

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Forces Lesson objective: Distinguish between situations involving balanced and unbalanced forces Success Criteria Level 6- Explain what a resultant force is and calculate it using information from a force diagram Level 5- Explain balanced and unbalanced forces using size and direction of arrows to help Level 4- Label the action of the forces using arrows to show if the forces are balanced or unbalanced Level 3– Label forces on a diagram

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**Draw arrows and Label the forces**

Friction Upthrust Air Resistance Magnetism Gravity water resistance

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**Tug of war Draw a diagram to show a tug of war**

- where is the bigger force acting? - which way will the losing team go? What are the variables that would affect the tug of war? Add these to your work

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Resultant forces The size of the overall force acting on an object is called the resultant force. If the forces are balanced, this is zero. If the forces are not balanced you have to calculate the overall force. e.g. Unbalanced forces make the truck speed up. The resultant force is the difference between the two forces, which is = 40 N.

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**RECAP Click for solution Resultant force = 20N -10N = 10N down**

Find the resultant force: 1. 5N 5N Click for solution Higher ability plenary 10N 20N Resultant force = 20N -10N = 10N down The block will accelerate down.

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**Resultant force = 5N - 0N = 5N right. **

2. 5N Click for solution 5N 5N 5N Resultant force = 5N - 0N = 5N right. The vertical forces are equal in size and opposite in direction so there is no resultant force in the vertical direction. The block will accelerate to the right.

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**Resultant force = 30 - 13 = 17N right. **

3. 3N 10N 20N 13N 17N 10N Click for solution Resultant force = = 17N right. The vertical forces are equal in size and opposite in direction so there is no resultant force in the vertical direction. The block will accelerate to the right.

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**Balanced or Unbalanced?**

This animal is either ________ or moving with _______ _____ This animal is getting ________ This animal is getting ________ Lower ability plenary Stationary constant speed slower constant speed Stationary faster This animal is also either _______ or moving with ________ ______

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**Investigating friction – planning variables**

Lesson4

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**Bell work Can you unscramble today's learning objective !!!**

ot dmetrneie teh vaairbles ni na exmernipet Each word is scrambled but all the words are in the correct order

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**Investigating friction**

Learning objective: To determine the variables in an experiment Success Criteria Level 6 - Can confidently use the names of and select variables when planning a fair test Level 5 - Can use the names of and select the most appropriate variables when planning a fair test Level 4 - Can select an appropriate variable to change and measure in a fair test Level 3 - Can select a variable to test from a list

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Starter Activity If the shoe is moving forwards. What forces are acting on this shoe? Draw arrows to represent the direction and if you can the size of these forces

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**Investigating friction**

I want to buy a new pair of trainers for the gym. What investigation could I do to look at how much grip my trainer gives me? What variables are there?

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Experiment

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Plenary WWW EBI Plenary

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**Bell work – work out the learning objective for today**

to produce a table for the investigation of the effects of friction on a shoe a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

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**Investigating friction – Experiment & table drawing**

Lesson 5

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**Starter In the back of your book answer the following questions**

What is a independent variable? What is a dependent variable? What is a control variable? Which column in a table does the independent variable go? Which column in the table does the dependent variables go?

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**Investigating friction**

Learning objective: - To produce a table for the investigation of the effects of friction on a shoe Success Criteria Level 5- I will Record my observations in a table I have constructed myself using repeats Level 4 - I will record my observations in a table that i will make up myself Level 3- I will record my observations in a table that i will make up myself with help

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Mass (g) Force used to pull a shoe (N) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

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Mass (g) Force to pull a shoe (N) Average force used to pull a shoe (N) Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

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**Investigating friction – Graph drawing**

Lesson 6

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Bell work Complete the following word search on forces

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**Investigating friction**

Learning Objective: To produce a graph for the results of your investigation Success Criteria Level 6 - I will present my results as a graph using mean and raw values to show the spread of data Level 5 – I will present my results as a graph using mean values I have calculated Level 4 –I will present my results as a graph using decimal numbers Level 3 – I will present my results as a graph using whole numbers

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**Starter Can you match the labels to the correct axes?**

thing you choose to change thing you measure dependent variable independent variable y

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**Force used to pull a shoe (N)**

Mass (g) Force used to pull a shoe (N) 0.5 100 1 200 1.5 300 2 400 2.5 500 4 600 3.5 700 6 800 7.5 900 8 1000 8.5

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**Contact or non-contact forces**

Lesson 7

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**Bell work Unscramble the names of these forces: gvatiyr rai rcetiasnse**

ftcrioin mnamtgsei utptruhs whtieg ewrta raeitsnsce

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**Contact or non-contact forces**

Learning Objective: To Recognise that forces can act at a distance. Success Criteria Level 5 – Classify forces as contact or non-contact Level 4 –Describe the difference between contact and non-contact forces Level 3 – recall the words contact and non-contact

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**Starter In the back of you book answer the following questions**

Which of the forces do you think have to touch something to have an effect? Which do you think act at a distance?

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**Practical Lets test your theory**

You are going to go round each station and test which forces need to touch and which act at a distance Magnets and iron filings Plastercine in water Sandpaper block on a surface

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**Table Before you start you must draw a table for your results remember**

level 3 you need help Level 4 table with variables in correct columns Level 5 plans for repeats

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Level 3 & 4 Object Do they need to touch? Contact or non-contact?

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**Level 5 Object Do they need to touch? Average result**

Contact or non-contact Test 1 Test 2 Test 3

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Explaining forces A4L task

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The journey of a pram Learning Objective: to be able to explain how forces affect objects Success Criteria Level 6 – Draw force diagrams showing the size and direction of the arrows correctly using science words accurately Level 5 – Draw a diagram using force arrow correctly showing size of the force and using more complicated science words Level 4 –Draw a diagram using force arrows using simple scientific words to label them Level 3 – Draw a diagram labelling a force as a push or pull

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Speed – calculating it Lesson 9

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Bell work

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Calculating speed Learning objective: -To be able to calculate speed stating correct units Success Criteria Level 5- Level 4 – Level 3-

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Starter Watch the trailer for the following film can you guess what your learning about today?

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**How do we calculate speed??**

Discuss in pairs how we measure speed and how we could work out how fast something was going?? What do we need to know??

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Calculating speed

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Questions The car on the motorway can travel 1860 metres in 60 seconds. Work out how fast the car is going. Don’t forget the units! Speed = distance/time 1860 /60 = 31 m/s The dog runs 1980 metres in 5 minutes. How fast is he running? Speed = distance (m)/time (s) 5 X 60 = 300 s 1980/300 =6.6 m/s How far will the cockroach run in 10 seconds? Distance = speed X time 0.2 X 10 = 2 m

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**Speed – investigating your speed!!**

Lesson 10

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Investigating Speed Learning objective: - To produce a table for the investigation of your speed Success Criteria Level 5- I will Record my observations in a table I have constructed myself using repeats Level 4 - I will record my observations in a table that i will make up myself Level 3- I will record my observations in a table that i will make up myself with help

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Bell work Complete the worksheet on your desk its all about speed and units

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**Starter As a group decide what you could do to calculate your speed??**

Remember to think about distance and time and making the experiment a fair test

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**Practical – calculating your speed**

Lets test out your ideas!! But first we need to do something!!

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Designing a table Design a table suitable to collect your results and calculate your speed remember level 3 you need help Level 4 table with variables in correct columns Level 5 plans for repeats

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Level 3 & 4 Person/activity Time (s) Speed (m/s)

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**Level 5 Person/activity Time (s) Average result (s) Speed (m/s) Test 1**

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**Speed – preliminary testing**

Lesson 11

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Bell work

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Investigating Speed Learning objective: - To carry out a preliminary test Success Criteria Level 6 - To carry out the preliminary test using precise measurements Level 5-To carry out the preliminary tests using accurate measurements Level 4 – To select equipment to do the test and set it up Level 3- To set up an experiment with help

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Preliminary testing You are going to carry out a preliminary test to decide the best way of working out the speed of a car Using the equipment provided you must work out measurements that you could take to work out the best speeds for your car Remember you need at least 5 different measurements to make it a reliable test

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What did you decide?

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**Speed – planning the experiment**

Lesson 12

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**Bell work Unscramble the following words iepenennddt vaielbar**

Ctronol viarleab dpneeednt vriablae eienqumpt thmedo

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Investigating Speed Learning objective: - To plan an investigation into how fast a car can travel Success Criteria Level 6 – Plan for a precise experiment Level 5 – Plan a reliable fair test through repetition using a detailed method Level 4 – Plan a fair test using a simple ordered method selecting variables Level 3 – Write a short written instruction choosing equipment and a variable from a list given

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**Planning levels LEVEL 3 LEVEL 4 LEVEL 5 LEVEL 6 EQUIPMENT METHOD**

Named some equipment that may be used Appropriate Equipment, as a list, chosen using the science terms for most of them Detailed equipment list all correctly named and given a reason for the choice. Selects equipment for precision METHOD A list of some steps which would help you carry out your investigation not necessary in a step by step way. A simple ordered method which contains the main things required to carry out the investigation. A detailed order method Planned for repeat reading of the experiment.. My method is written for precision Plans for a preliminary test to identify a range and interval FAIR TESTING AND VARIABLES Selects a variable to test from a list Selects a variable to change and measure in a fair test .Identified the dependant and independent variable. Stated how they will change the independent and measure the dependant variables. Identified all the controlled variables.

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**Peer assessment Using a highlighter make a key for level 3,4,5& 6**

Colour each area of the plan in How successful was the plan? (www) Remember 2 points How could you improve your work? (EBI) Remember 1 point

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**Speed – designing the table A4L task part 1**

Lesson 13

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Bell work

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Investigating Speed Learning objective: - To produce results for the investigation of how fast a car can travel down a ramp Success Criteria Level 6 – I will calculate means in my table Level 5- I will Record my observations in a table I have constructed myself using repeats Level 4 - I will record my observations in a table that i will make up myself Level 3- I will record my observations in a table that i will make up myself with help

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**Task 1 You must draw your table in your A4L booklet – pge 30**

Now complete your experiment and record all results in your table

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**Speed – drawing the graph and writing conclusions A4L task part 2**

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Investigating speed Learning Objective: To produce a graph for the results of your investigation Success Criteria Level 6 - I will present my results as a graph using mean and raw values to show the spread of data Level 5 – I will present my results as a graph using mean values I have calculated Level 4 –I will present my results as a graph using decimal numbers Level 3 – I will present my results as a graph using whole numbers

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**Task 2 Now draw a graph of your results**

You must decide what type of graph to draw and work out your own scale Hint remember to look at the smallest and biggest numbers Once you have drawn a graph can you write a conclusion

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Distance time graphs Lesson 15

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Bell work – can you match the picture to the correct units- write your answers in the back of your book mph m/s Km/h

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Distance/time graphs Learning Objective: Recognise and understand the relationship between speed, distance and time Success Criteria Level 6 – can draw a distance/time graph Level 5 – can interpret a distance/time graph Level 4 – can describe a distance/time graph Level 3 – can recall that we use a distance/time graph to show a journey

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Journey to school In the back of your books write down what you did to get to school today Examples Did you walk/bus/car Did you stop for any reason? Did you speed up for any reason?

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**How can we show our journey as a graph?**

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**Use board works yr9 speeding up**

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**Results table for Distance / Time Graph**

Time/Seconds Distance/Metres 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 904 76 186 234 484 634 784 994 974 16

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**The line on the graph is not straight, so we know the speed of the car is changing.**

The curve is downwards as the car slows down at the end of the movie. The car has stopped: The line is flat – the distance of the car from the start point is not changing. The line is straight – meaning that there is no CHANGE in speed. The car is going fast but at a constant speed. The line is straight in this region of the graph. The car is starting to move. The curve shows that the speed is changing. The curve is upwards as the car accelerates at the start of the movie.

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**Look at the straight line part of this graph shown by the two arrows in a triangle.**

The car has travelled from 200m to 800m, = 600m The car has taken from 16s to 36s to travel this distance = 20 seconds Therefore the speed is 600 divided by 20 = 30 m/s

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**Distance/time graphs Task Answer questions 1-3 on the sheet**

Cut out the graph and stick it in your book Cut out the labels and place them in the correct speech bubbles Only stick them down if you’ve had them checked!! Extension If you finish see if you can sketch what your journey to school would look like as a graph

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**Plenary - use mini white boards and write down the correct answers**

Question 1 Which graph shows the object travelling at a faster speed? B A

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Well done

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Try again

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Question 2 Which part of the graph shows that the object is stationary? A B C

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Well done

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Try again

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Question 3 Which line shows an object that is accelerating? A B

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Well done

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Try again

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Question 4 How far did object A travel? 50 metres 100 miles 100 metres

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Well done

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Try again

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Question 5 What was the speed of object A? 200 m/s 5 m/s 0.2 m/s

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Well done

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Try again

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Question 6 Which part of the graph shows that the object is returning to the start? B C A A B C

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Well done

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Try again

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Question 7 Which parts of the graph shows that the object is travelling at a constant speed? B C A A+B B+C A+C

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Well done

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Try again

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Question 8 How long was the cyclist stationary for? B C A 80s 40s 220s

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Finished

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Try again

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Pressure Lesson 16

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**Brain warmer! Have a look at the concept cartoon on your desk.**

Which character do you agree with? Why? Discuss your ideas in your group

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Pressure Learning Objective: to define pressure and apply knowledge to explore the way forces can be spread out or concentrated Success Criteria Level 6 – Calculate pressure giving the correct units Level 5 – Explain what pressure depends on Level 4 – Describe pressure Level 3 – Recall the word pressure

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Ready, Steady, Teach In your groups use the “ingredients” in the bag to try to: Describe what pressure is Explain what pressure might depend on 127

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**Pressure is the force applied to a specific area of surface**

Pressure is the force applied to a specific area of surface. It therefore depends on: i) the force acting ii) the area of surface

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High or low? 129

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**but how do we calculate pressure…?**

FORCE (WEIGHT) (N) PRESSURE (N/m2) AREA ( m2 )

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Boards at the ready! A force of 20 N acted over an area of 2 m2 (two square metres). What is the pressure? force ÷ area = pressure 20 ÷ 2 = 10 N/m2

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Levers & Moments Lesson 17

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Pressure Learning Objective: Explain turning moments and be able to calculate moments using the correct equation and units Success Criteria Level 6 – Calculate turning moments using the equation with correct units Level 5 –Explain how you can reduce the force needed to turn an object Level 4 – Explain what a force multiplier is Level 3 – State what a turning effect is

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**Starter What do you know? Can you work out which statements match??**

Lever the force you put in pivot a simple machine effort the force that you move load the point a lever turns around

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Levers Pivot Effort Load

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Levers Working in groups of 4 create a circle map of as many types of levers you can think of. eg: Door Handle

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Levers On each of the pictures, label the load, the pivot and the effort.

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**A force acting on an object can cause it to turn about a pivot.**

What happens to the see-saw when a force is applied on the left-hand side? Does the seesaw turn? If so, clockwise or anti-clockwise? pivot pivot

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**The turning effect of a force is called a moment.**

The left-hand side of the see-saw moves downwards when a force is applied to it – this is an anticlockwise turn. pivot Copy this The turning effect of a force is called a moment.

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**distance from force to pivot**

A spanner is a lever that can be used to unscrew a nut. The spanner exerts a moment or turning force on the nut. pivot distance from force to pivot force If the moment is big enough it will unscrew the nut. If not, there are two ways of increasing the moment.

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**distance from force to pivot**

1. Increase the distance from the force to the pivot – apply the force at the end or use a longer spanner. pivot distance from force to pivot force If the same force is applied over a greater distance, a larger moment is produced.

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**distance from force to pivot**

2. Increase the force applied – push/pull harder or get someone stronger to do it! pivot distance from force to pivot force If a greater force is applied over the same distance, a larger moment is produced.

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**How can we increase momentum?**

Consider a situation where you are trying to unscrew a nut using a spanner: The spanner exerts a MOMENT or TURNING FORCE on the nut. If the moment is big enough it will… UNSCREW the nut! If the moment is not big enough how could you increase the moment (turning force)?

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Levers and moments There are two ways to increase a moment: Increase the DISTANCE from the pivot (get a longer spanner) OR… Increase the FORCE applied (get a strong man!) Copy this

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**The equation (Learn this!)**

Copy this Moment = Force x Distance from pivot Newtons N/cm or N/m cm or m

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Plenary What have we learnt and how do we know?

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1 of 44© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What is pressure? The elephant has a larger weight than the lady, but the contact area between its feet and the floor is far.

1 of 44© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What is pressure? The elephant has a larger weight than the lady, but the contact area between its feet and the floor is far.

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