9Memory divisions Explicit or declarative Implicit or procedural Available to conciousnessNot available to consciousness
10Explicit memory Epidodic Semantic Personal events Autobiographical eventsBirthday last year?First kiss?First job?What was on TV last night?General knowledgeCapital of France?Who wrote War and Peace?Distance from Exeter to Plymouth?
11Memory divisions Episodic Semantic Hippocampal formation Limbic system Diencephalic system: basal forebrain and thalamus.Temporal neocortex with perhaps more verbal semantic memory on left and more visual semantic memory on right.
12Implicit Motor skills Basal ganglia Cerebellum Riding a bike, car, playing the piano, motor skills.
13Short versus long term memory Avoid the term short term memory, it’s a mess.Think instead in terms of working memory and long term memory.Simple concept of working memory, remembering information for 5-30 minutesWorking memory is better as a concept.
14Working memory and loops Central executive probably based in frontal lobesPhonological loop to verbal area in dominant hemisphere and visuospatial loop to non dominant loopOngoing simultaneously and not completely independent of long term memory
15Retrograde and anterograde memory Retrograde: recall of previously learnt material.Anterograde: acquisition of new memories.
16Where is memory stored?Seems that verbal memory is dominant hemisphereSeems that visual memory also known as iconic memory is non dominant.
17The amnesic syndrome Pure deficit in memory. All other areas more or less intact.
18Amnesic syndrome Acute and transient Chronic TGA Epilepsy Closed head injuryDrugsPsychogenicHippocampalHerpes simplexAnoxiaSurgical resection of temporal lobesBilateral posterior cerebral artery occlusionClosed head injuryAlzheimer’s diseaseDiencephalicKorsakoff’s3rd ventricle tumoursSAH-ACAM anuerysm
19Amnesic syndrome 1 generally preserved IQ. 2 preserved short term/working memory for example digit span.3 anterograde amnesia4 retrograde amnesia which is generally more severe in diencephalic amnesia5 preserved procedural/implicit memory
20Amnesic syndrome Diencephalic Hippocampal Problems with encoding Problems with retrieval of memory from long term storageThe main problem is either encoding or consolidation, unlikely to be retrieval.
21Memory MCQs Semantic memory Episodic memory Is constantly acquired Is intact in Korsakoff’sIs intact in Alzheimer’s DiseaseIs intact in semantic dementiaNon dominant temporal lobe lesions can result in prosopagnosia for famous facesIs impaired in Alzheimer’s.Is the same as autobiographical memory.Is normal in poorly controlled epilepsyIs intact in Korsakofff’sIs normal in psychogenic fugue.
22Memory MCQs Implicit memory Short term memory If brought into consciousness, is then explicit.Is affected by cerebellar disease.Also has an autobiographical element.Is intact in the amnesic syndromeCannot be testedHas a time limit of 30 minutesIs the same as working memoryIs intact in Korsakoff’sIs a term best avoided due to imprecision.Is intact in Alzheimer’s disease.