Presentation on theme: "Seminar forAcademic Speaking Multiple Intelligences on Learning Process Post Graduate Program of English Education UNINDRA PGRI – Jakarta by: NDARU ANUGERAH."— Presentation transcript:
Seminar forAcademic Speaking Multiple Intelligences on Learning Process Post Graduate Program of English Education UNINDRA PGRI – Jakarta by: NDARU ANUGERAH
Education is one of the most important things because it is a basic requirement to succeed and to get success through his life. INTRODUCTION Hence, government launched a 9-year-educating compulsory program besides making a curriculum changing to accommodate students’ needs in order to be existing through their lives.
But, there are a lot of obstacles to make qualified graduates. One of the main factors is that many schools still have conservative thought in learning process. It means that they emphasize only in logics and language.
“It is a big mistake if every time the report is given, the students’ achievements are only assessed through logical and linguistic skills.” Therefore, government is to revise the national educational system which has been based on assessing students only through logical and linguistic factors. (Seto Mulyadi, Kompas – 2003)
Intelligence is a skill to do something on focus, to think rationally, and to handle the environment effectively. Heredity and environment give significant contribution in order to form the human’s intelligence.
However, practically people tend to confound Intelligence and Intelligence Quotient (IQ). IQ is a score which one has got by using intelligent testing device, which, of course give only little information about one’s intelligence spatially but not holistically. IQ is measured by using Stanford Binet Test which was introduced by Lewis Truman in 1916. It standardized intelligence as a ratio of mental age and chronologic age.
IQ test is not designed to reveal about one’s talent. Unfortunately, talent gives epochal contribution to one’s success. Intelligence without being supported by certain talent will create disorientation in life. “Talent is determined by ability, creativity and social responsibility. One can be claimed to be talented if he has those criteria within himself. Each factor gives important role which can determine one’s talent.” (Renzulli, 1981)
Talent can be measured by using special test which is known as Aptitude Test, such as: Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Where is the position of creativity in one’s success?
“Creativity is a divergent process of thinking. It means it could give some various answers according to the information given. While intelligence is only designed to assess convergent process of thinking, which means the ability to give an answer or logical conclusion according to the information given. It is undeniable that divergent process is very dominant in advancement of science.” (Guilford, 1950)
Briefly, Carnegie (1992) said that intelligence must be supported by talent and creativity in balance. However, there are many students with special talents and creativity who do not get reinforcement in their school. As the result, those who are reckoned as Attention Deficit Disorder, Learning Disable or Underachiever, actually they are not, since their unique way of thinking and talent are not accommodated by their schools. Schools tend to use conservative strategy in learning process which is based on logics and linguistic skills. This way of thinking is strongly framed in every teacher who does the learning process.
Moreover, according to the investigation which was conducted by Insan Kancil Foundation in 2003, the learning process of kindergarten students tend to take portion of Elementary level. At least 99% of kindergartens have been taught reading, writing and calculating as well. It means the educational process in kindergarten level has emphasized on academic intelligence without casting the balance of other intelligences. So, it is clear that educational process which is conducted by teachers still prioritizes on students’ logical and linguistic skill.
Howard Gardner (a professor from Harvard University) offers a multiple intelligence s’ concept in learning process. He emerged his theory from his consideration of several simple but powerful questions: “Are the brilliant chess player, violinist and athlete ‘intelligent’ in their respective disciplines?” “If they are, then why does our test of ‘intelligence’ fail to identify them? In general, why does the traditional construct of intelligence fail to take into account such large areas of human endeavor?”
He developed the set of criteria for identifying an intelligence: It should be seen in relative isolation in prodigies, autistic savants, stoke victims or other exceptional populations. It should have some basis in evolutionary biology. It should have a distinct developmental trajectory. It should be susceptible to capture in symbol system. It should be supported by evidence from psychometric tests of intelligence. It should be distinguishable from other intelligences through experimental psychological tasks. It should demonstrate a core, information-processing system.
Contrast from Alfred Binet, though application of these criteria, he said that one’s intellectual intelligence consists of several aspects such as: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist. This concept is later known as Multiple Intelligences (MI).
In developing curriculum, besides logics and language, according to Moleong (1994), both teachers and parents have to be synergetic in order to develop those intelligences, especially for early childhood education (0 – 8 years). Those intelligences are the basic needs to win the competition, because naturally children are sharp-witted. (Armstrong, 2002)
Multiple Intelligences concept was formerly introduced by Howard Gardner in 1983 though his phenomenal book ‘Frame of Mind: Theory of Multiple Intelligences’. Basically, it is an improvement upon Intelligence Quotient (IQ), Emotional Quotient (EQ) and Spiritual Quotient (SQ). It is introduced to students so that they are able to solve their problems besides getting academic achievements. CONTENT
We, as a society, assume that success at school is the main key to reach success in the future. In real life, it is indisputable that few successful people who became success within their educational time. Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg and Tiger Wood are some examples of million people who were considered to be failed ones at school but they become success in their fields.
According to Gardner (1983), each intelligence, in order to digest the information, works spatially in human brain. But in remittance, those intelligences work synergistically to produce the information needed. Moreover, by developing this concept, the chance for students to be success will be bigger.
To build children’s intelligence thoroughly is like to make a tent with several rods as pole. The equal higher of the rods, the more compact the tent will be. In order to be brilliant, one has to reach high score for those intelligences. People usually have the combination of 4 or 5 intelligences preeminently. Albert Einstein, for example, is well-known for his brilliance in science, but also known to be excellent in playing violin, magnificent in lecturing, riddle adorable, and essay writer in several mass media.
The research shows that heredity is no longer compatible in order to develop intelligence optimally. The contribution of parents in giving exercises and conducive environment is considerably more important to determine the improvement of children’s intelligence. We cannot lean on the success at school only. Parents have to encourage and to stimulate those intelligences as many as they can for their children. Moreover, schools have also obligation to accommodate the students’ needs within the curriculum.
Linguistic Intelligence It is the ability to process words effectively, either verbally or orally. Those who have this intelligence are called THE WORD PLAYER, with dominant characteristics: Like to write anything creatively and bate out fantasy stories or talk about jokes. Like to read in the spare time. Excellent in linguistic lesson. People excel with this intelligence is William Shakespeare. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence It is the ability to process numbers and to use logics or common sense excellently. Those who have this intelligence are called THE QUESTIONER, with dominant characteristics: To count the arithmetic problem fast. Love to ask about something analytically. Able to explain about certain problem logically. People excel with this intelligence is Albert Einstein.
Spatial Intelligence It is the ability to perceive spatial-visual world accurately. Those who have this intelligence are called THE VISUALIZER, with dominant characteristics: To give visual illustration clearly while explaining about something. Like to have fantasy and surpass in art lesson. More comprehensive in acknowledging information through pictures instead of words. People excel with this intelligence is Walt Disney.
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence It is the ability to explore the whole part of the body in order to express ideas and feeling. People who have this intelligence are called THE MOVER, with dominant characteristics: React physically to the problems they have. Like to do apart pairs activity. Outstanding in Physical Education lesson. People excel with this intelligence is Michael Jordan.
Musical Intelligence It is the ability to appreciate music by recognizing, distinguishing, arranging and also expressing it. Those who have this intelligence are called THE MUSIC LOVER, with dominant characteristics: Expert in playing musical instruments. Tend to study with music companion. Outstanding in musical field. People excel with this intelligence is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Interpersonal Intelligence It is the ability to perceive and to discern one’s mood, feeling, goal, and motivation. People who have this sort of intelligence are called THE SOCIALIZER, with dominant characteristics: Have a lot of friends through socialization. Have a big empathy to other people’s suffering. Talented in leadership and social sciences. People excel with this intelligence is Abraham Lincoln.
Intrapersonal Intelligence It is the ability to self-assure and to act based on the comprehension of it. Those who have this intelligence are called THE INDIVIDUAL, with dominant characteristics: Show the independent attitude with strong determination. To work and to study in self-educated manner. To concentrate in thinking in order to reach goal. People excel with this intelligence is Jean Paul Sartre.
Naturalist Intelligence It is the ability to determine and to categorize species of flora and fauna around neighborhood. Those with this intelligence are called THE OUTDOORSMAN, with dominant characteristics: Like to explore outdoor activity. Like to do gardening or to have pets at home. Have empathy for neighborhood. People excel with this intelligence is Wangari Maathai.
By knowing the characteristic of those intelligences, it is hoped that both teachers and parents are able to provide exciting environment for children to study and to have self- actualization optimally. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
Multiple Intelligences on Practice Whatever you are teaching or learning, see how you might connect it with: words (linguistic intelligence) numbers or logic (logical-mathematical intelligence) pictures (spatial intelligence) music (musical intelligence) self-reflection (intrapersonal intelligence) a physical experience (bodily-kinesthetic intelligence) a social experience (interpersonal intelligence), and an experience in the natural world. (naturalist intelligence)
If you are teaching or learning about the law of supply and demand in economics, you might read about it (linguistic), study mathematical formulas that express it (logical-mathematical), examine a graphic chart that illustrates the principle (spatial), observe the law in the natural world (naturalist) or in the human world of commerce (interpersonal); examine the law in terms of your own body [e.g. when you supply your body with lots of food, the hunger demand goes down; when there's very little supply, your stomach's demand for food goes way up and you get hungry] (bodily-kinesthetic and intrapersonal); and/or write a song (or find an existing song) that demonstrates the law (perhaps Bob Dylan's "Too Much of Nothing?").
So far, hundreds of schools, teachers, and researchers at all different levels and in many different countries and settings have applied MI theory to the practice of education in various ways. Some schools teach students about the concept of intrapersonal intelligence in order to encourage them to reflect upon their own strengths and weaknesses. While other schools seek to deepen student engagement by designing curricula that draw upon different intelligences in students’ investigation of a particular topic.
One of the first schools to draw extensively upon the principles of MI theory was The Key Learning Community in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. This school regards MI theory as the cornerstone of its educational program, and according to its principal, the school’s schedule allows students to study all eight intelligences during the regular school day. The school hosts a formal visitors' program and annual summer institute which draw educators from across the United States and world interested in seeing the “world's first multiple intelligence school” in action.
Danfoss Universe is a 10-acre science experience park that opened in Sonderberg, Denmark, in 2005. The park is divided into three parts: the outdoor park, a museum, and the Explorama. The Explorama is a museum-sized building with more than 50 different activities designed to teach visitors about their various intelligences. Chen and Gardner (2005) further report that identifying and nurturing these at-risk children's strengths led to statistically significant increases in these children's self- direction, self-confidence, positive classroom behavior, positive effect, self-monitoring, and active engagement.
Schools Using Multiple Intelligences Theory (SUMIT), was a three-year national study conducted from 1997 to 2000 that involved site visits, data analysis, and interviews with teachers at 41 schools that employed MI theory in some capacity. Kornhaber, Fierros and Veneema (2004) report that, after drawing upon MI theory, 78% of the schools in their study reported improved standardized test scores; 78% reported improved academic performance by students with learning difficulties; and 81% reported improvements in student discipline. More than half of these schools attributed these improvements to the implementation of curriculum and practices inspired by MI theory. Both Danfoss Universe and Project SUMIT seem to offer clear evidence of the promise that multiple intelligences theory holds for educators, schools, student performance, and school culture.
Having implemented Multiple Intelligences’ Concept, we automatically appreciate the individual difference based on the intelligence they have. As the consequence, it needs some improvement in learning strategy in order to reach each competence/skill which has been set in certain curriculum. CONCLUSION
We must empower this concept on every lesson besides optimizing certain subjects based on students’ intelligence. Thus, teachers have to make innovations simultaneously in learning process in addition to provide several assessment models and to stimulate exciting learning activities for every student so that they can explore their intelligences/skills optimally. Moreover, it is proven that this concept has gained some benefits throughout the educational system.