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Chapter 1 (BEGINNINGS-1700)

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1 Chapter 1 (BEGINNINGS-1700)

2 Chapter 1 (BEGINNINGS-1700) C1S1 The Earliest Americans
Main Ideas Climate changes allowed people to migrate to the Americas. Early Societies existed in North America. Cultures in North America were influenced by the environment. The Big Idea Native American societies developed across Mesoamerica and North America.

3 Chapter 1 (BEGINNINGS-1700) C1S2 The Age of Exploration
Main Ideas Economic growth in Europe led to new ways of thinking. Trade with Africa and Asia led to a growing interest in exploration. Many European nations rushed to explore the Americas. The Columbian Exchange affected the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Europe. The Big Idea As trade routes developed across the globe, European explorers crossed the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas.

4 Chapter 1 (BEGINNINGS-1700)
C1S3 Spanish America Main Ideas Spanish armies explored and conquered much of the Americas. 2. Spain used a variety of ways to govern its empire in the Americas. The Big Idea Spain established an empire in the Americas.

5 Chapter 1 (BEGINNINGS-1700)
C1S4 The Race for Empires Main Ideas The Protestant Reformation led to conflict in Europe in the 1500s. Conflict between Spain and England affected settlement of North America. European nations raced to establish empires in North America. The Big Idea Other European nations challenged Spain in the Americas.

6 Chapter 2 - The English Colonies (1605-1774)

7 Chapter 2 The English Colonies (1605-1774) C2S1 The Southern Colonies
Main Ideas The settlement in Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in America. Daily life in Virginia was challenging to the colonists. Religious freedom and economic opportunities were motives for founding other southern colonies, including Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia. Farming and slavery were important to the economies of the southern colonies. The Big Idea Despite a difficult beginning, the southern colonies soon flourished.

8 Chapter 2 The English Colonies (1605-1774)
C2S2 The New England Colonies Main Ideas The Pilgrims and Puritans came to America to avoid religious persecution. Religion and government were closely linked in the New England colonies. The New England economy was based on trade and farming. Education was important in the New England colonies. The Big Idea English colonists traveled to New England to gain religious freedom.

9 Chapter 2 The English Colonies (1605-1774)
C2S3 The Middle Colonies Main Ideas The English created New York, and New Jersey from former Dutch territory. William Penn established the colony of Pennsylvania. The economy of the middle colonies was supported by trade and staple crops. The Big Idea People from many nations settled in the middle colonies.

10 Chapter 2 The English Colonies (1605-1774)
C2S4 Life in the English Colonies Main Ideas Colonial governments were influenced by political changes in England. English trade laws limited free trade in the colonies. The Great Awakening and the Enlightenment led to ideas of political equality among many colonists. The French and Indian War gave England control of more land in North America. The Big Idea The English colonies continued to grow despite many challenges.

11 Chapter 2 The English Colonies (1605-1774)
C2S5 Life in the English Colonies Main Ideas British efforts to raise taxes on colonists sparked protest. The Boston Massacre caused colonial resentment toward Great Britain. Colonists protested the British tax on tea with the Boston Tea Party. Great Britain responded to colonial actions by passing the Intolerable Acts. The Big Idea Tensions developed as the British government placed tax after tax on the colonies.

12 Chapter 3 - The American Revolution (1774-1783)

13 Chapter 3 - The American Revolution (1774-1783)
C3S1 The Revolution Begins Main Ideas The First Continental Congress demanded certain rights from Great Britain. Armed conflict between British soldiers and colonists broke out with the “shot heard ‘round the world.” The Second Continental Congress created the Continental Army to fight the British. The Big Idea The tensions between the colonies and Great Britain led to armed conflict.

14 Chapter 3 - The American Revolution (1774-1783)
C3S2 Declaring Independence Main Ideas Thomas Paine’s Common Sense led many colonists to support independence. 2. Colonists had differing reactions to the Declaration of Independence. The Big Idea The colonies formally declared their independence from Great Britain.

15 Chapter 3 - The American Revolution (1774-1783)
C3S3 Patriots Gain New Hope Main Ideas Many Americans contributed to the war effort. Despite early defeats by Britain, the Patriots claimed some victories. Saratoga was a turning point in the war. The winter at Valley Forge tested the strength of Patriot forces. The war continued at sea and in the West. The Big Idea Patriot forces faced many obstacles in the war against Britain.

16 Chapter 3 - The American Revolution (1774-1783)
C3S4 Independence! Main Ideas Patriot forces faced many problems in the war in the South. The American Patriots finally defeated the British at the Battle of Yorktown. The British and the Americans officially ended the war with the Treaty of Paris of 1783. The Big Idea The war spread to the South, where the British were finally defeated.

17 Chapter 4 - Forming a Government (1777-1791)

18 Chapter 4 - Forming a Government (1777-1791)
C4S1 The Articles of Confederation Main Ideas The American people examined many ideas about government. The Articles of Confederation laid the base for the first national government of the United States. The Confederation Congress established the Northwest Territory. The Big Idea The Articles of Confederation provided a framework for a national government.

19 Chapter 4 - Forming a Government (1777-1791)
C4S2 The New Nation Faces Challenges Main Ideas The United States had difficulties with other nations. Internal economic problems plagued the new nation. Shays’s Rebellion pointed out weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation. Many Americans called for changes in the national government. The Big Idea Problems faced by the young nation made it clear that a new constitution was needed.

20 Chapter 4 - Forming a Government (1777-1791)
C4S3 Creating the Constitution Main Ideas The Constitutional Convention met to improve the government of the United States. The issue of representation led to the Great Compromise. Regional debate over slavery led to the Three-Fifths Compromise. The U.S. Constitution created federalism and a balance of power. The Big Idea A new constitution provided a framework for a stronger national government.

21 Chapter 4 - Forming a Government (1777-1791)
C4S4 Ratifying the Constitution Main Ideas Federalists and Antifederalists engaged in debate over the new Constitution. The Federalist Papers played an important role in the fight for ratification of the Constitution. Ten amendments were added to the Constitution to provide a Bill of Rights to protect citizens. The Big Idea Americans carried on a vigorous debate before ratifying the Constitution.

22 Chapter 5 - Citizenship and the Constitution (1787-PRESENT)

23 Chapter 5 - Citizenship and the Constitution (1787-PRESENT)
C5S1 Understanding the Constitution Main Ideas The framers of the Constitution devised the federal system. The legislative branch makes the nations laws. The executive branch enforces the nation’s laws. The judicial branch determines whether or not laws are constitutional. The Big Idea The U.S. Constitution balances the powers of the federal government among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

24 Chapter 5 - Citizenship and the Constitution (1787-PRESENT)
C5S2 The Bill of Rights Main Ideas The First Amendment guarantees basic freedoms to individuals. Other amendments focus on protecting citizens from certain abuses. The rights of the accused are an important part of the Bill of Rights. The rights of states and citizens are protected by the Bill of Rights. The Big Idea The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution to define clearly the rights and freedoms of citizens.

25 Chapter 5 - Citizenship and the Constitution (1787-PRESENT)
C5S3 Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship Main Ideas Citizenship in the United States is determined in several ways. Citizens are expected to fulfill a number of important duties. Active citizen involvement in government and the community is encouraged. The Big Idea American citizenship involves great privileges and serious responsibilities.

26 Chapter 6 - Launching the Nation (1789-1800)

27 Chapter 6 - Launching the Nation (1789-1800)
C6S1 Washington Leads a New Nation Main Ideas In 1789 George Washington became the first president of the United States. Congress and the president organized the executive and judicial branches of government. Americans had high expectations of their own government. The Big Idea President Washington and members of Congress established a new national government.

28 Chapter 6 - Launching the Nation (1789-1800)
C6S2 Hamilton and National Finances Main Ideas Hamilton tackled the problem of settling national and state debt. Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton’s views on government and the economy. Hamilton created a national bank to strengthen the U.S. economy. The Big Idea Treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton developed a financial plan for the national government.

29 Chapter 6 - Launching the Nation (1789-1800)
C6S3 Challenges for the New Nation Main Ideas The United States tried to remain neutral regarding events in Europe. The United States and Native Americans came into conflict in the Northwest Territory. The Whiskey Rebellion tested Washington’s administration. In his Farewell Address, Washington advised the nation. The Big Idea The United States faced significant foreign and domestic challenges under Washington.

30 Chapter 6 - Launching the Nation (1789-1800)
C6S4 John Adams’s Presidency Main Ideas The rise of political parties created competition in the election of 1796. The XYZ affair caused problems for President John Adams. Controversy broke out over the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Big Idea The development of political parties in the United States contributed to differing ideas about the role of the federal government.

31 Chapter 7 - The Jefferson Era (1800-1815)

32 Chapter 7 - The Jefferson Era (1800-1815)
C7S1 Jefferson Becomes President Main Ideas The election of 1800 marked the first peaceful transition in power from one political party to another. President Jefferson’s beliefs about the federal government were reflected in his policies. Marbury v. Madison increased the power of the judicial branch of government. The Big Idea Thomas Jefferson’s election began a new era in America government.

33 Chapter 7 - The Jefferson Era (1800-1815) C7S2 The Louisiana Purchase
Main Ideas As American settlers moved West, control of the Mississippi River became more important to the United States. The Louisiana Purchase almost doubled the size of the United States. Expeditions led by Lewis, Clark, and Pike increased Americans’ understanding of the West. The Big Idea Under President Jefferson’s leadership, the United States added the Louisiana Territory.

34 Chapter 7 - The Jefferson Era (1800-1815)
C7S3 The Coming of War Main Ideas Violations of U.S. neutrality led Congress to enact a ban on trade. Native Americans, Great Britain, and the United States came into conflict in the West. The War Hawks led a growing call for war with Great Britain. The Big Idea Challenges at home and abroad led the United States to declare war on Great Britain.

35 Chapter 7 - The Jefferson Era (1800-1815)
C7S4 The War of 1812 Main Ideas American forces held their own against the British in the early battles of the war. U.S. forces stopped British offensives in the East and South. The effects of the war included prosperity and national pride. The Big Idea Great Britain and the United States went to battle in the War of 1812.

36 Chapter 8 - A New National Identity (1812-1830)

37 Chapter 8 - A New National Identity (1812-1830)
C8S1 American Foreign Policy Main Ideas The United States and Great Britain settled disputes over boundaries and control of waterways. The United States gained Florida in an agreement with Spain. With the Monroe Doctrine, the United States strengthened its relationships with Latin America. The Big Idea The United States peacefully settled disputes with foreign powers.

38 Chapter 8 - A New National Identity (1812-1830)
C8S2 Nationalism and Sectionalism Main Ideas Growing nationalism led to improvements in the nation’s transportation systems. The Missouri Compromise settled an important regional conflict. The outcome of the election of 1824 led to controversy. The Big Idea A rising sense of national unity allowed some regional differences to be set aside and national interests to be served.

39 Chapter 8 - A New National Identity (1812-1830)
C8S3 American Culture Main Ideas American writers created a new style of literature. A new style of art showcased the beauty of America and its people. American ideals influenced other aspects of culture, including religion and music. Architecture and education were affected by cultural ideals. The Big Idea As the United States grew, developments in many cultural areas contributed to the creation of a new American identity.

40 Chapter 9 - The Age of Jackson (1828-1840)

41 Chapter 9 - The Age of Jackson (1828-1840) C9S1 Jacksonian Democracy
Main Ideas Democracy expanded in the 1820s as more Americans held the right to vote. Jackson’s victory in the election of 1828 marked a change in American politics. The Big Idea The expansion of voting rights and the election of Andrew Jackson signaled the growing power of the American people.

42 Chapter 9 - The Age of Jackson (1828-1840)
C9S2 Jackson’s Administration Main Ideas Regional differences grew during Jackson’s presidency. The rights of the states were debated amid arguments about a national tariff. Jackson’s attack on the Bank sparked controversy. Jackson’s policies led to the Panic of 1837. The Big Idea Andrew Jackson’s presidency was marked by political conflicts.

43 Chapter 9 - The Age of Jackson (1828-1840)
C9S3 Indian Removal Main Ideas The Indian Removal Act authorized the relocation of Native Americans to the West. Cherokee resistance to removal led to disagreement between Jackson and the Supreme Court. Other Native Americans resisted removal with force. The Big Idea President Jackson supported a policy of Indian removal.

44 Chapter 10 - Expanding West (1800-1855)

45 Chapter 10 - Expanding West (1800-1855)
C10S1 Trails to the West Main Ideas During the early 1800s, Americans moved west of the Rocky Mountains to settle and trade. The Mormons traveled west in search of religious freedom. The Big Idea The American West attracted a variety of settlers.

46 Chapter 10 - Expanding West (1800-1855) C10S2 The Texas Revolution
Main Ideas Many American settlers moved to Texas after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. Texans revolted against Mexican rule and established an independent nation. The Big Idea In 1836, Texas gained its independence from Mexico.

47 Chapter 10 - Expanding West (1800-1855) C10S3 The Mexican-American War
Main Ideas Many Americans believed that the nation had a manifest destiny to claim lands in the West. As a result of the Mexican-American War, the United States added territory in the Southwest. American settlement in the Mexican Cession produced conflict and a blending of cultures. The Big Idea The ideals of manifest destiny and the outcome of the Mexican American War led to U.S. expansion to the Pacific Ocean.

48 Chapter 10 - Expanding West (1800-1855) C10S4 The California Gold Rush
Main Ideas The discovery of gold brought settlers to California. The gold rush had a lasting impact on California’s population and economy. The Big Idea The California gold rush changed the future of the West.

49 Chapter 11 - The North ( )

50 C11S1 The Industrial Revolution in America
Chapter 11 - The North ( ) C11S1 The Industrial Revolution in America Main Ideas The invention of new machines in Great Britain led to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The development of new machines and processes brought the Industrial Revolution to the United States. Despite a slow start in manufacturing, the United States made rapid improvements during the War of 1812. The Big Idea The Industrial Revolution transformed the way goods were produced in the United States.

51 C11S2 Changes in Working Life
Chapter 11 - The North ( ) C11S2 Changes in Working Life Main Ideas The spread of mills in the Northeast changed workers’ lives. The Lowell System revolutionized the textile industry in the Northeast. Workers organized to reform working conditions. The Big Idea The introduction of factories changed working life for many Americans.

52 C11S3 The Transportation Revolution
Chapter 11 - The North ( ) C11S3 The Transportation Revolution Main Ideas The Transportation Revolution affected trade and daily life. The steamboat was one of the first developments of the Transportation Revolution. Railroads were a vital part of the Transportation Revolution. The Transportation Revolution brought many changes to American life and industry. The Big Idea New forms of transportation improved business, travel, and communication in the United States.

53 C11S4 More Technological Advances
Chapter 11 - The North ( ) C11S4 More Technological Advances Main Ideas The telegraph made swift communication possible from coast to coast. With the shift to steam power, businesses built new factories closer to cities and transportation centers. Improved farm equipment and other labor-saving devices made life easier for many Americans. New inventions changed lives in American homes. The Big Idea Advances in technology led to new inventions that combined to change daily life and work.

54 Chapter 12 - The South ( )

55 C12S1 Growth of the Cotton Industry
Chapter 12 - The South ( ) C12S1 Growth of the Cotton Industry Main Ideas The invention of the cotton gin revived the economy of the South. The cotton gin created a cotton boom in which farmers grew little else. Some people encouraged southerners to focus on other crops and industries. The Big Idea The invention of the cotton gin made the South a one-crop economy and increased the need for slave labor.

56 Chapter 12 - The South (1790-1860) C12S2 Southern Society Main Ideas
Southern society and culture consisted of four main groups. Free African-Americans in the South faced a great deal of discrimination. The Big Idea Southern society centered around agriculture.

57 Chapter 12 - The South (1790-1860) C12S3 The Slave System Main Ideas
Slaves worked at a variety of jobs on plantations. Life under slavery was difficult and dehumanizing. Slave culture centered around family, community, and religion. Slave uprisings led to stricter slave codes in many states. The Big Idea The slave system in the South produced harsh living conditions and occasional rebellions.

58 Chapter 13 - New Movements in America (1815-1850)

59 Chapter 13 - New Movements in America (1815-1850)
C13S1 Immigrants and Urban Challenges Main Ideas Millions of immigrants, mostly German and Irish, arrived in the United States despite anti-immigrant movements. Industrialization led to the growth of cities. American cities experienced urban problems due to rapid growth. The Big Idea The population of the United States grew rapidly in the early 1800s with the arrival of millions of immigrants.

60 Chapter 13 - New Movements in America (1815-1850)
C13S2 American Arts Main Ideas Transcendentalists and utopian communities withdrew from American society. American Romantic painters and writers made important contributions to art and literature. The Big Idea New movements in art and literature influenced many Americans in the early 1800s.

61 Chapter 13 - New Movements in America (1815-1850)
C13S3 Reforming Society Main Ideas The Second Great Awakening sparked interest in religion. Social reformers began to speak out about temperance and prison reform. Improvements in education reform affected many segments of the population. Northern African American communities became involved in reform efforts. The Big Idea Reform movements in the early 1800s affected religion, education, and society.

62 Chapter 13 - New Movements in America (1815-1850)
C13S4 The Movement to End Slavery Main Ideas Americans from a variety of backgrounds actively opposed slavery. Abolitionists organized the Underground Railroad to help enslaved Africans escape. Despite efforts of abolitionists, many Americans remained opposed to ending slavery. The Big Idea In the mid-1800s, debate over slavery increased as abolitionists organized to challenge slavery in the United States.

63 Chapter 13 - New Movements in America (1815-1850)
C13S5 Women’s Rights Main Ideas Influenced by the abolition movement, many women struggled to gain equal rights for themselves. Calls for women’s rights met opposition from men and women. The Seneca Falls Convention launched the first organized women’s rights movement in the United States. The Big Idea Reformers sought to improve women’s rights in American society.

64 Chapter 14 - A Divided Nation (1848-1860)

65 Chapter 14 - A Divided Nation (1848-1860)
C14S1 The Debate Over Slavery Main Ideas The addition of new land in the West renewed disputes over the expansion of slavery. The Compromise of 1850 tried to solve the disputes over slavery. The Fugitive Slave Act caused more controversy. Abolitionists used antislavery literature to promote opposition. The Big Idea Antislavery literature and the annexation of new lands intensified the debate over slavery.

66 Chapter 14 - A Divided Nation (1848-1860)
C14S2 Trouble in Kansas Main Ideas The debate over the expansion of slavery influenced the election of 1852. The Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed voters to allow or prohibit slavery. Pro-slavery and antislavery groups clashed violently in what became known as “Bleeding Kansas.” The Big Idea The Kansas-Nebraska Act heightened tensions in the conflict over slavery.

67 Chapter 14 - A Divided Nation (1848-1860) C14S3 Political Divisions
Main Ideas Political parties in the United States underwent change due to the movement to expand slavery. The Dred Scott decision created further division over the issue of slavery. The Lincoln-Douglas debates brought much attention to the conflict over slavery. The Big Idea The split over the issue of slavery intensified due to political division and judicial decisions.

68 Chapter 14 - A Divided Nation (1848-1860)
C14S4 The Nation Divides Main Ideas John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry intensified the disagreement between free states and slave states. The outcome of the election of 1860 divided the United States. The dispute over slavery led the South to secede. The Big Idea The United States broke apart due to the growing conflict over slavery.

69 Chapter 15 - The Civil War (1861-1865)

70 Chapter 15 - The Civil War (1861-1865)
C15S1 The War Begins Main Ideas Following the outbreak of war at Fort Sumter, Americans chose sides. The Union and the Confederacy prepared for war. The Big Idea Civil War broke out between the North and the South in 1861.

71 Chapter 15 - The Civil War (1861-1865)
C15S2 The War In The East Main Ideas Union and Confederate forces fought for control of the war in Virginia. The Battle of Antietam gave the North a slight advantage. The Confederacy attempted to break the Union naval blockade. The Big Idea Confederate and Union forces faced off in Virginia and at sea.

72 Chapter 15 - The Civil War (1861-1865)
C15S3 The War In The West Main Ideas Union strategy in the West centered on control of the Mississippi River. Confederate and Union troops struggled for dominance in the Far West. The Big Idea Fighting in the Civil War spread to the western United States.

73 Chapter 15 - The Civil War (1861-1865) C15S4 Daily Life During The War
Main Ideas The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in Confederate states. African Americans participated in the war in a variety of ways. President Lincoln faced opposition to the war. Life was difficult for soldiers and civilians alike. The Big Idea The lives of many Americans were affected by the Civil War.

74 Chapter 15 - The Civil War (1861-1865)
C15S5 The Tide of War Turns Main Ideas The Battle of Gettysburg in 1863 was a major turning point in the war. During 1864, Union campaigns in the East and the South dealt crippling blows to the Confederacy. Union troops forced the South to surrender in 1865, ending the Civil War. The Big Idea Union victories in 1863, 1864, and 1865 brought the Civil War to an end.

75 Chapter 16 - Reconstruction (1865-1877)

76 Chapter 16 - Reconstruction (1865-1877) C16S1 Rebuilding the South
Main Ideas President Lincoln and Congress differed in their views as Reconstruction began. The end of the Civil War meant freedom for African Americans in the South. President Johnson’s plan began the process of Reconstruction. The Big Idea The nation faced many problems in rebuilding the Union.

77 Chapter 16 - Reconstruction (1865-1877)
C16S2 The Fight Over Reconstruction Main Ideas Black Codes led to opposition to President Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction. The Fourteenth Amendment ensured citizenship for African Americans. Radical Republicans in Congress took charge of Reconstruction. The Fifteenth Amendment gave African Americans the right to vote. The Big Idea The return to power of the pre-war southern leadership led Republicans in Congress to take control of Reconstruction.

78 Chapter 16 - Reconstruction (1865-1877)
C16S3 Reconstruction In The South Main Ideas Reconstruction governments helped reform the South. The Ku Klux Klan was organized as African Americans were restricted. As Reconstruction ended, the rights of African Americans were restricted. Southern business leaders relied on industry to rebuild the South. The Big Idea As Reconstruction ended, African Americans faced new hurdles and the South attempted to rebuild.

79 Chapter 17 - Americans Move West (1850-1890)

80 Chapter 17 - Americans Move West (1850-1890)
C17S1 Miners, Ranchers, and Railroads Main Ideas A mining boom brought growth to the West. The demand for cattle created a short-lived Cattle Kingdom on the Great Plains. East and West were connected by the transcontinental railroad. The Big Idea As more settlers moved West, mining, ranching, and railroads soon transformed the western landscape.

81 Chapter 17 - Americans Move West (1850-1890)
C17S2 Wars For The West Main Ideas As settlers moved to the Great Plains, they encountered the Plains Indians. The U.S. Army and Native Americans fought in the northern plains, the Southwest, and the Far West. Despite efforts to reform U.S. policy toward Native Americans, conflict continued. The Big Idea Native Americans and the U.S. government came into conflict over land in the West.

82 Chapter 17 - Americans Move West (1850-1890)
C17S3 Farming And Populism Main Ideas Many Americans started new lives on the Great Plains. Economic challenges led to the creation of farmers’ political groups. By the 1890s, the western frontier had come to an end. The Big Idea Settlers on the Great Plains created new communities and unique political groups.

83 Chapter 18 - An Industrial Nation (1876-1900)

84 Chapter 18 - An Industrial Nation (1876-1900)
C18S1 The Second Industrial Revolution Main Ideas Breakthroughs in steel processing led to a boom in railroad construction. Advances in the use of oil and electricity improved communications and transportation. A rush of inventions changed the lives of Americans. The Big Idea The Second Industrial Revolution led to new sources of power and advances in transportation and communication.

85 Chapter 18 - An Industrial Nation (1876-1900)
C18S2 Big Business Main Ideas The rise of corporations and powerful business leaders led to the dominance of big business in the United States. People and the government began to question the methods of big business. The Big Idea The growth of big business in the late 1800s led to the creation of monopolies.

86 Chapter 18 - An Industrial Nation (1876-1900)
C18S3 Industrial Workers Main Ideas The desire to maximize profits and become more efficient led to poor working conditions. Workers began to organize and demand improvements in working conditions and pay. Labor strikes often turned violent and failed to accomplish their goals. The Big Idea Changes in the workplace led to a rise in labor unions and workers’ strikes.

87 Chapter 18 - An Industrial Nation (1876-1900)
C18S4 A New Wave Of Immigration Main Ideas The late 1800s brought a wave of new immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and Mexico. Some Americans opposed immigration and tried to enact restrictions against it. The Big Idea A new wave of immigration in the late 1800s brought large numbers of immigrants to the United States.

88 Chapter 18 - An Industrial Nation (1876-1900)
C18S5 City Life Main Ideas New technology and ideas were developed to deal with the growth of urban areas. The rapid growth of cities created a variety of urban problems. The Big Idea Cities in the United States experienced dramatic expansion in the late 1800s.

89 Chapter 19 - The Spirit of Reform (1865-1920)

90 Chapter 19 - The Spirit of Reform (1865-1920)
C19S1 The Gilded Age Main Ideas Political corruption was common during the Gilded Age. Presidents during the Gilded Age confronted the issue of corruption. In an effort to clean up political corruption, limits were put on the spoils system. The Big Idea Politics during the Gilded Age was plagued by corruption.

91 Chapter 19 - The Spirit of Reform (1865-1920)
C19S2 The Progressive Movement Main Ideas Progressives pushed for urban and social reforms to improve the quality of life. Progressive reformers expanded the voting power of citizens and introduced reforms in local and state governments. The Big Idea From the late 1800s through the early 1900s, the progressive movement addressed problems that faced American society.

92 Chapter 19 - The Spirit of Reform (1865-1920)
C19S3 Reforming The Workplace Main Ideas Reformers attempted to improve conditions for child laborers. Unions and reformers took steps to improve safety in the workplace and working hours. The Big Idea In the early 1900s progressives and reformers focused on improving conditions for American workers.

93 Chapter 19 - The Spirit of Reform (1865-1920)
C19S4 The Rights Of Women And Minorities Main Ideas Female progressives fought for temperance and the right to vote. African American reformers challenged discrimination and called for equality. Progressive reform did not benefit all minorities. The Big Idea The progressive movement made advances for the rights of women and some other minorities.

94 Chapter 19 - The Spirit of Reform (1865-1920)
C19S5 The Progressive Presidents Main Ideas Theodore Roosevelt’s progressive reforms tried to balance the interests of business, consumers, and laborers. William Howard Taft angered progressives with his cautious reforms. Woodrow Wilson enacted banking and antitrust reforms. The Big Idea American presidents in the early 1900s did a great deal to promote progressive reform.

95 Chapter 20 - America Becomes a World Power (1867-1910)

96 Chapter 20 - America Becomes a World Power (1867-1910)
C20S1 The United States Gains Overseas Territories Main Ideas The United States ended its policy of isolationism. Because of its economic importance, Hawaii became a U.S. territory. The United States sought trade with Japan and China. The Big Idea In the last half of the 1800s, the United States joined the race for control of overseas territories.

97 Chapter 20 - America Becomes a World Power (1867-1910)
C20S2 The Spanish-American War Main Ideas Americans supported aiding Cuba in its struggle against Spain. In 1898 the United States went to war with Spain in the Spanish-American War. The United States gained territories in the Caribbean and Pacific. The Big Idea The United States expanded into new parts of the world as a result of the Spanish-American War.

98 Chapter 20 - America Becomes a World Power (1867-1910)
C20S3 The Unites States And Latin America Main Ideas The United States built the Panama Canal. Theodore Roosevelt changed U.S. policy toward Latin America. Presidents Taft and Wilson promoted U.S. interests in Latin America. The Big Idea The United States expanded its role in Latin America in the early 1900s.

99 Chapter 20 - America Becomes a World Power (1867-1910)
C20S4 The Unites States And Mexico Main Ideas In 1910 Mexicans revolted against their government. The Mexican Revolution threatened U.S. interests economically and politically. The Big Idea The Mexican Revolution threatened relations between the United States and Mexico.

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