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A NTHRAX Primal Sudjana. Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 20,000-100,000 cases estimated globally/year

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Presentation on theme: "A NTHRAX Primal Sudjana. Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 20,000-100,000 cases estimated globally/year"— Presentation transcript:

1 A NTHRAX Primal Sudjana

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3 Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, , ,000 cases estimated globally/year

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5 C AUSES Bacteria Bacillus anthracis

6 S CIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION  Kingdom: Bacteria Bacteria  Phylum: Firmicutes Firmicutes  Class: Bacilli Bacilli  Order: Bacillales Bacillales  Family: Bacillaceae Bacillaceae  Genus: Bacillus Bacillus  Species: B. anthracis

7 S TRAINS ( TYPES ) Cutaneous (skin) Inhalation (lungs) Gastrointestinal (digestive)

8 Anthrax toxin is made up of three proteins: protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF). PA binds to specific cell receptors, and following proteolytic activation it forms a membrane channel that mediates entry of EF and LF into the cell. EF is an adenylyl cyclase; with PA it forms a toxin known as edema toxin. LF plus PA form lethal toxin, which is a major virulence factor and cause of death in infected animals. ANTHRAX TOXIN

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10 Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 H UMAN T RANSMISSION Industry Tanneries Textile mills Wool sorters Bone processors Slaughterhouses

11 Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008 H UMAN T RANSMISSION Cutaneous Contact with infected tissues, wool, hide, soil Biting flies Inhalational Tanning hides, processing wool or bone Gastrointestinal Undercooked meat

12 T HROUGH A NIMALS Humans can become infected after handling infected animals Breathing anthrax spores from infected products (like wool) Eating undercooked meat from infected animals (Undercooked meat)

13 H OW IS IT TRANSMUTABLE ? A S A BIOLOGICAL WEAPON Anthrax spores can be distributed Ex. USA 2001, anthrax spores spread through postal system via letters containing spores

14 A NTHRAX SPORES

15 W HO GETS IT ? Animals primarily Common in… South & Central America Southern/Eastern Europe Asia Africa Middle East

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17 I NCUBATION P ERIOD symptoms appear within 7 days of initial contact For inhalation anthrax, anywhere from a week to 60 days

18 S TRAINS ( TYPES ) Cutaneous (skin) Inhalation (lungs) Gastrointestinal (digestive)

19 CUTANEOUS ANTHRAX Raised itchy bump (resembles incest bite) 1-2 days, develops into a vesicle (cyst) Develops into painless ulcer (1-3 cm diameter) Ulcer has black center Swelling of surrounding tissues Swelling of adjacent lymph glands

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21 G ASTROINTESTINAL A NTHRAX Initial signs: nausea Loss of appetite Vomiting blood Sever diarrhea Lesions & soreness in throat Difficulty swallowing Swelling of neck &lymph glands 50% of all patients develop meningitis

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23 I NHALATION ANTHRAX Flu/cold like symptoms Cough Chest discomfort Shortness of breath Tiredness & muscle aches

24 Meditational widening with inhalation anthrax

25 D IAGNOSIS Bacterial cultures Measuring specific antibodies in blood Positive cultures are unlikely after antibiotic treatment has been started

26 Anthrax is acute (of abrupt onset, of short duration, rapidly progressing & in need of urgent care) People can’t become immune to anthrax Can get anthrax multiple times

27 W HAT PARTS OF THE BODY ARE AFFECTED ? In cutaneous anthrax: Skin, surrounding tissues & lymph glands In gastrointestinal anthrax: Digestive system, neck & lymph glands In inhalation anthrax: Respiratory & immune system

28 T REATMENST Anthrax vaccine Avoiding contact w/ animals Don’t eat improperly slaughtered/cooked meat

29 F URTHER TREATMENT Prevention after exposure: Antibiotic & vaccine combo Treatment after infection: 60 day course of antibiotics Success depends on type of anthrax & how soon treatment was started Anthrax is terminal if left untreated

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