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Opportunities for participation

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1 Opportunities for participation

2 Concepts and Definitions
From Play to Sport

3 Characteristics and Objectives
Play Leisure and Recreation Active leisure Outdoor and Adventurous activities Sport Physical Education

4 PLAY - characteristics
Characteristics of Play Fun Spontaneous No strict structure Rules Changeable and negotiated Intrinsic Value Although fun can be serious Fantasy world

5 Play - objectives Children Adults Test boundaries
Experience risk within safe limits Socialisation Promotes independence Develops respect Allows social interaction Escape reality To be childlike Creativity and fantasy

6 Leisure Used to be for privileged few – now essential for normal life

7 Recreation – “active positive and beneficial” – similar to leisure +
Refresh mind and body Recuperate “re-create” – be creative – participate in activities for self-fulfilment Physical Recreation does all that through physical activity

8 Active Leisure Physical recreation normally linked to sport
Sport – competitive – not everyone wants competition Everyone does need physical activity for health benefits Active Leisure – physically active in leisure time – jogging, swimming, aerobics walking “Lifetime sports”

9 Outdoor and Adventurous Activites
Popularity increased in last 70 years Government support More availability

10 Characteristics Outdoor Recreation Adventure Activities
Activity done in natural environment – woods, lakes Not all outdoor recreation is adventure Same environment Element of challenge and risk All adventure activities considered outdoor recreation

11 Outdoor and Adventure education
Using natural environment as classroom Children experience danger and risk in controlled manner Benefits Appreciate natural environment Skills – map reading etc.. Team work leadership

12 Challenge and Risk Difference between outdoor and adventure lies in the concept of challenge and risk Adventure activities have an element of perceived or actual risk Perceived risk – dependent on skills and experience and actions they take Actual Risk – real danger – real risk – cannot be eliminated no matter how skilful

13 Risk Risk relates to predictability
If risk is predictable it is avoidable – danger is subjective – linked to knowledge and expertise At other end of scale a situation can be so unpredictable that danger is real and objective Mortlock – experience – risk continuum page 131

14 objectives Outdoor rec/education Adventure activities
Learn to appreciate natural environment Active leisure, lifetime sport Experience beyond normal routine Escape from mundane Excitement, thrill, fear Self-reliance Self awareness/discovery Leadership Team work Trust

15 Urban adventure Cost may prevent those from cities experiencing outdoor and adventurous activity Overcome by using parks, canals, climbing walls Free running has developed to use features in the city to experience the thrill of outdoor education

16 Sport Major part of modern life – “new religion”
Sport England – 5 million people gave 1 billion hours to sport on a voluntary basis Billion pound industry

17 Defining Sport Coakley defines Sport as….
"Sports are institutionalized competitive activities that involve rigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex physical skills by participants motivated by internal and external rewards."

18 Sport Institutionalised Intrinsic/Extrinsic
Fixed competitive structures – leagues, cups- overseen by governing body Standardised rules – set by governing body Rules enforced by officials Strategies for play, training, positions, equipment Codes of conduct Why people play Intrinsic – internal factors – enjoyment, satisfaction Extrinsic – external – medals, prizes, money, trophies, praise Most people motivated by a combination of the two

19 Categories of sport Games – sub divisions Invasion - Football
Based on National curriculum activities – and distinctive characteristic Games – sub divisions Invasion - Football Striking and Field - Cricket Combat - Judo Target - Golf Net sports - Tennis Dance - aesthetic Games - outwitting opponents Gymnastics - replication Swimming and Water Safety Athletic Activities – maximising speed or distance Outdoor and Adventurous – challenge and risk

20 A sport is…. Competitive Selective by ability and excellence
Serious – commitment needed Requires physical endeavour Organised Involves “sportsmanship” – codes of conduct – fair play – morals Is Darts a Sport?

21 Develop sense of fair play
Objectives of Sport Fulfil potential challenge Release tension Health Self esteem Learn to accept rules Work with others Show perseverance Develop sense of fair play

22 Prevent anti-social behaviour Economic benefits Bring country together
Benefits to society socialisation Prevent anti-social behaviour Economic benefits Bring country together Improve international relations Feelgood factor Create a healthier nation

23 Sport related problems Over commercial – win at all costs
Media – has too much influence – can change nature of game Hooliganism Drug abuse Bad behaviour can influence youth Media – more spectators than players

24 Physical Education - characteristics
“learning through the physical” Formal body of knowledge with an educational philosophy Learnt through experience of physical activity Learning fundamental physical/motor skills Learning rules, tactics and etiquette of a range of activities. A means of developing positive social and personal values such as teamwork and cooperation. To develop the ability to appreciate the quality of movement To understand Health-Related Fitness To develop a lifelong love and engagement with exercise, physical activity and sport.

25 How PE, Sport and Recreation overlap
PE – learning how to serve in tennis Sport – playing for the school tennis tournament Recreation – playing tennis at lunch time

26 Physical activity continuum
Level of organisation Play Leisure Physical Rec/Active Leisure Outdoor PE Sport Least organised most organised Competition Play Leisure Outdoor Physical Rec/Active Leisure PE Sport Least competitive most competitive

27 Benefits of Physical activity
To individuals Stress reduction Improved fitness and health Develop social relationships Make friends challenge Self-fulfilment Team working skills Learn about natural environment

28 Improved health of the nation – reduce burden on NHS Economic benefits
Benefits to society Improved health of the nation – reduce burden on NHS Economic benefits Personal development – role models in society Shop window effect – high level performers enhance reputation of country Reduce anti-social behaviour

29 Exam Questions January 09 2a Mark scheme June 08 1 Mark Scheme
June 08 2abc Mark scheme June Mark Scheme Jan 08 1ab Mark Scheme June 07 3a Mark Scheme

30 Leisure Provision Physical Activity has major benefits to society in terms of health and the reduction of anti-social behaviour. Provided by three sectors Public Private Voluntary What are the characteristics and goals of each?

31 Public Sector Provided from taxation – local or national
Or through other forms of government or public support – e.g lottery. Local authorities have responsibility for building and maintaining recreation facilities Provided for the public good Some user groups are subsidised

32 Characteristics of public sector Funded by taxation and lottery
Facilities aim to break even not to make profit Aim to encourage under-represented groups Pay for entry and use Subsidised for less well off Run for the good of the community Day to day management may be by private company – DC leisure Joint and dual use – often partners with schools

33 Private Sector Commercial companies Run for profit
Growing sector – many employment opportunities Rapid expansion in last 20 years High quality Higher cost for membership Exclusive

34 Characteristics of private sector Profit motive High quality
Higher admission prices Cater for more well-off members of society No public service remit

35 Characteristics of voluntary sector Not-for-profit
Players pay to play through match fees and subs Support roles filled by volunteers Receive grant aid from lottery, Sport England and Governing Bodies Will hold fund raisers Surplus funds used to improve facilities or services for members Covers whole range of sport and leisure activity

36 Inequality of opportunity – advantages and disadvantages of each sector
Government keen to see more people physically active for 3 reasons Improved health – less burden on the NHS Reduce crime and anti-social behaviour by engaging people in purposeful physical activity Enhance community esteem and cohesion 3 sectors because – one sector alone cannot achieve all this Inequality because.. Some local areas poorly provided Individuals lack resources Not everyone aware of the benefits Social exclusion or discrimination

37 How good is each sector at providing “sport for all” Private Sector
Advantages Disadvantages React quickly to demand Meet individual needs Restrict membership – so facility is rarely over-crowded Costs high Restrictions – long waiting lists – exclusive Discrimination – rules to prevent some people joining Sport may suffer – thought only for certain types of people – tennis – middle class

38 Voluntary Sector Advantages Disadvantages Just needs enthusiasm
Huge range of activities Exist for the benefit of the people Voluntary efforts keep costs low Lots of financial support from government Sponsors often keen to help Unplanned and relatively uncontrolled – relies on goodwill No equal opps remit Continuity not guaranteed – relies on voluntary enthusiasm No guarantee of financial support Can still be socially exclusive

39 Public Sector Advantages Disadvantages
Required to act in the public good Resources allocated for this purpose Not driven by profit motive Funds often limited – may not be enough Local authorities in economically disadvantaged areas may have less to spend Less financial freedom to borrow money to invest in facilities for the future

40 “Best Value” – improving the public sector
1980’s introduced Compulsory Competitive Tendering (CCT) – Local authorities had to invite private companies to tender for the provision of local services. The best bid won the right to provide the leisure services for that area. Replaced in 2000 with “Best Value” Government policy aimed to improve local government services – including leisure and recreation – system operates around best value performance indicators – leisure services departments are inspected regularly and judged against criteria known as the 4C’s

41 4 C’s Challenge – are councils doing as well as they can, compared to the best councils Consult – do they ask local communities what they think Compare – do they compare performance with other councils and the private and voluntary sector Compete – have they demonstrated that they are managing the services in the best way possible.

42 Recreation – Who manages what? Small- medium size Private Sector
High Quality Specialist Profit Local/Public Sector Outdoor Facilities Social provision Dual use Multi-sport Facilities – owned, leased, rented Provision for self +wider society Clubs – amateur Voluntary Sector Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) Sport England Lottery Recreational Policy Nat. government Social Provision

43 The role of National Government
Department for Culture, Media and Sport “playground to podium” Sport England – one of the National sports Councils – primarily concerned with Increased participation UK Sport – development of elite performers

44 SPORT ENGLAND Developing community sport and increasing participation nationwide Major Policy – National Framework for Sport Key Partners – NGB’s, Sport Equity Alliance, National Sport foundation to address inequality for some groups Liase with – Youth Sport Trust and UK Sport to create structure from first experience to elite performance Achieves objectives through local initiatives putting into practice national framework Locally works with councils, schools and clubs Allocates funding from taxation and the lottery to achieve objectives Provides advice to local and national providers Conducts research in levels of participation to find out why individuals participate or not Works with other government agencies to promote wider social policies for community health and well-being

45 Exam Questions Jan 09 4c Mark Scheme Jan 08 4c Mark Scheme
June 07 2c Mark Scheme

46 National Curriculum PE and School Sport
PE is defined as .. “a formalised body of knowledge and experience taught within educational establishments” Relatively new subject – 100 years Developed from two different strands Public Schools (upper and middle class) – emphasised team games State Elementary – health and fitness bias

47 Public School Sports (1800 -1870)
Upper Class Bullying common Large amounts of leisure time Hunting, Gambling and drinking Younger boys used as servants – “fagging” Played games – “mob sports” Considered violent by head-teachers Some saw potential for games if controlled to channel boys energy Thomas Arnold (Rugby School) used games as a form of “social control” The importance of Leadership was emphasised – senior boys organised the matches Schools began to play each other and became more important Masters recognised the potential for more than just improving discipline Promoted games, brought back old boys to coach – standards of play improved as did facilities and equipment. Success on playing field a good way of promoting school

48 Fair Play Games played with a strict code of conduct
Seen as a way of instilling moral qualities Leadership, Discipline, Integrity, Loyalty, Bravery and Decision making. Games played for the team not the individual Ultimately the idea that games developed both the physical and moral side of an individual was given the term “Athleticism” – “physical endeavour with moral integrity” This vision was used by De Coubertin when he created the modern olympic games in 1896

49 Codification Games grew in popularity More schools played each other
Schoolboys took games to university Need to agree a common set of rules Groups set up to settle disputes fore-runners of Governing bodies

50 Popular Rec Rational Rec
Regular Participation Complex rules Highly structured Spectator based and participation Refined skills rather than force Middle/upper class development Regional/national Sophisticated equipment Occasional – Feast Days Few rules Violent Force rather than skill Participation Lower Class Local Limited structure

51 Rational Recreation As games developed in public schools society was changing Industrial revolution brought people to towns from the countryside – urbanisation This led to.. Changed work patterns Less space – cramped terraced housing Move from seasonal time to machine time 12 hour days six days a week – little leisure time These all contributed to the decline of popular recreation but why did rational recreation take it’s place?

52 Rational Recreation – the middle class
Industrial revolution also created the new “middle class” People who had profited from industrialisation. Factory owners, Doctors, clergymen. Wanted their children to experience the same sort of education as the upper classes. Created own version of public schools With team games and it’s values central to these schools They wanted to pass these on to wider society because of the physical and moral benefits associated with team sports. Factory owners created teams and facilities as did churches to encourage working people to participate. They improved working conditions and gradually the standard of living of the working class improved. They had more money and with the advent of half-day Wednesday and Saturday more leisure time. They hoped this would lead to a fitter and more moral society. Most of today’s sports were created between 1860 and 1890 Rational Recreation was the name given to this new form of organised and regulated sport.

53 Social changes – that helped the development of rational recreation
Pre-industrial Seasonal Time Limited Transport Illiteracy Harsh Rural Lifestyle Feudal System Agricultural Uncivilized Lack of technology Post-industrial Machine Time Improved transport Business/Admin Skills More civilized Middle Class Industrial Increased law and order Technological advancement

54 State School Education 1870 - 1940
Public Schools State Schools Aims Develop leaders of society Characteristics Upper/Middle class Hierarchichal Prefects Single Sex Physical Activities Team Games Aims Education for the masses Disciplined and obedient workforce Morals Characteristics Small, cramped spaces Local and Free of charge Mixed Sex


56 Developments in State School Physical Education
Drill – boys only NCO’s Girls later 1890 – Swedish Gym Focus on therapeutic benefits Teachers begin to takeover WHY? Health/Fitness Instil develop discipline/accept role Easy to implement Military service Cheap Little space required


58 The Model Course 1902 Military Drill Command-Obey NCO’s
Sticks as dummy weapons WHY? Health/Fitness Instil develop discipline/accept role Easy to implement Military service Cheap Little space required


60 1904-1919 Why? How? Improve health/physical development
Medical basis – preventative measure Rehabilitation after WW1 Increase enjoyment Teacher uses more initiative Control to Education board Female PE teachers How? 1904 Swedish system reinstated – therapeutic Age/sex differences noted 1909 – games introduced 1919 – post WW1 importance of recreation

61 1933 -1952 What? Why? 1933 Introduce group work
Moves towards decentralisation 1944/post WW2 Child centred approach emphasis on skill Apparatus/gyms 1952/1954 moving and growing/planning the programme - individualised Why? Encourage interaction between teachers and pupils Develop creativity Discovery style Teacher initiative PE teaching developed further Influence of Dance movement - Laban

62 POST WW2 – Key words Moving and Growing Planning the Programme
Child Centred Exploratory Discovery Obstacle Movement Recreative

63 1902 Return to military following Boer War 1904 Syllabus moved away from military towards therapeutic. 1909 1909 Syllabus became Physical Training 1919 Syllabus moved from PT to PE with educational principles 1933 World War 2 saw a lead towards Moving + Growing 1954 1956 – new programme Introduction Right marker; fall in; stand at ease; attention; right turn; march; halt; about turn; march; halt; left turn; stand at ease Fall in in 2 lines; attention; right turn; quick march; about turn etc…then free gymnastic running; halt; gymnastic skipping; halt; stand at ease Free running; signal – 1 large ring; free running; signal 4 rings; free running; 4 lines Running + leaping; change speed; change direction; change shape; twisting + turning Arms + trunk Attention; arms bend; up; bend; forward; bend; side; bend; down; stand at ease Attention; arms bend + stretch; x2; down; swing forward; up + down; with leg lunges – up + down; halt; stand at ease In lines – elbow circling ; arms swing forwards+ backwards; cross leg sitting knee to ear; lateral reach + twisting; stand + touch ground; lying-hip turning Pulling + pushing – pairs; obstinate calf; knee boxing; chinese boxing; pushing + pulling; tug-o-war; arm lock wrestling; crouch tug-o-war Body + legs Attention; double knee bend; onto hands- down; leg stretches; arms bend + stretch; x2; knees bend; up; stand at ease Attention; feet astride; trunk forward – bend; swing up with arms raised; down + up; swing sideways; bend sideways with arms raised; halt; stand at ease Running – statues; farmers seeking rabbits; rabbits hopping + crouch hopping; alternately still on signal Body curling + stretching; forwards + backwards; lying alternatives; sitting alternatives; kneeling alternatives; standing + twisting Applied work Attention; astride with cross; forward, up, bend down; x2; at ease Jumping astride x2; with arms raising; halt; stand at ease Class activity skills Through vaults in 3s Supported jumps + vaults in 2s + 3s exploring different alternatives. With dumb-bells; attention; swing up+downx2; swing up+through x2; halt; stand at ease; halt; right turn; quick march back to class Catherine Wheel; 1st line arm raised; ready; cartwheel; stand; 2nd line etc; return; deep breathing; arms raising on breathing; walk in lines back to class Corner activities – Frog jump into hoops Forward roll along mattress Through vault in 3s Handstanding in pairs Game hand tennis – 2 teams Apparatus work. Twisting + turning on frame apparatus, boxes + benches. Changing round to new apparatus.

64 National Curriculum Education Reform Act 1988 introduced a National Curriculum with the aim of raising standards by centralising the decisions regarding what is taught in schools and making schools more accountable for their performance. Since 1988 the National Curriculum has been revised several times most recently in 2008 when schools again were given more say over what they include in their curriculum.

65 New Secondary Curriculum
The latest version of the National Curriculum gives greater freedom to schools to decide what to include depending on the needs and interests of it’s pupils. All schools have a common goal to develop Successful learners Confident Individuals Responsible Citizens Every subject including Physical Education should be aspiring to achieve these goals. How this is achieved is down to individual schools.

66 Developing school-club links
“Social inclusion” is the driving force behind the government’s policy for Sport and physical activity. Numerous documents have been published to outline how the government plans to use sport and physical activity in the fight against social exclusion. A sporting future for all – 2001 Game Plan main objectives – increased participation Improved success at international level

67 High Quality Physical Education and School Sport
The better students experience of Sport and Physical activity at school the more likely they are to continue into adult life. To achieve high quality the government has implemented a number of strategies Sports Colleges – now over 400 – receive additional funding to promote good practice in their own and partner schools. Youth Sport Trust is the lead body for Sports Colleges and is charged with helping them to deliver the PE and Sport Strategy for Young People (PESSYP) in partnership with Sport England

68 Exam questions Jan 09 2bcd Mark Scheme Jan 09 3abc
June Mark scheme June 08 3a Jan 08 1bc Mark Scheme Jan 08 3a Jan 08 4a Jun Mark Scheme

69 Equal opportunities Sport and physical activity are of benefit to individuals and society. Equality of opportunity means that all individuals have the same chance to participate Inequality of opportunity exists for some groups of people because of a number of barriers Lack of opportunity Lack of personal resources Discrimination - stereotyping Self-discrimination Group or peer pressure

70 Who suffers from the barriers to participation?
Women Ethnic Minorities Disabled Lower socio-economic groups

71 Gender - Reasons for lower participation of Women
- Domestic Role - Social Stereotyping - Sport traditionally established and controlled by men - Less media coverage - Less money / power - Sexism – the belief that one sex is inferior to the other - Inequalities in sporting opportunities - Role models

72 Research Perceived lack of interest of friends Family uninterested
Teenage girls – Sport England 2006 Muslim women – Womens Sport Foundation 2006 Perceived lack of interest of friends Family uninterested Concerns over weight and appearance Lack of self-confidence Lack of information about staying invovled Negative experiences in schools Mixed groups – lack of single sex groups Problems with dress code Lack of positive role models

73 Solutions to Low Participation
Equal Opportunities - Suffragettes –Right to Vote – 1917 Sex Discrimination Act (1975) Organisations - Women’s Sport Foundation More Facilities for women Better Links between Schools and Clubs Increased Media Coverage Health Related Activities in schools – broader curriculum

74 Ethnic Groups Group of people who share common origins
Cultural, religious, racial or linguistic. Sport England research revealed differing levels of participation by different ethnic groups. Certain minority ethnic groups are under represented.

75 Reasons for Low Participation
- Home and family responsibilities - Lack of money - Work / study demands - Religious beliefs - NEGATIVE EXPERIENCES Racism – a set of ideas or beliefs based on the assumption that some races have distinct characteristics that make them more superior to others.

76 Solutions to the lower participation rates from ethnic minority groups
Sport Policies – Sporting Equals/CRE Information Clubs Sports leaders / development officers Media Coverage – role models Campaigns to eliminate racism

77 Disability Understand the effect of disability on opportunities for participation and the role of Disability for Sport England Disability – a term used when an impairment adversely affects performance Physical Sensory Mental

78 Categories of Disabled Athletes
Amputee Includes athletes who have at least one major joint in a limb missing, Cerebral palsy A disorder of movement and posture due to damage to an area, or areas, of the brain that control and coordinate muscle tone, reflexes, posture and movement.. Intellectual disability Substantial limitation in intellectual functioning (an IQ of 70 or below), and two or more of the following: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure and work and have acquired their condition before age 18.

79 Categories of Disabled Athletes
Les autres 'the others'. A term used to describe athletes with a range of conditions which result in locomotive disorders - such as dwarfism - that don't fit into other classifications. Vision impaired Any condition which interferes with 'normal' vision. Wheelchair At least a 10% loss of function of their lower limbs, e.g. traumatic paraplegia and quadriplegia, spina bifida, poliomyelitis, amputees, cerebral palsy and all non ambulant les autres athletes.

80 Disabled people are more likely to participate in some sports than others.
Which sports are these? Why are disabled people more likely to participate in them? Horse riding Swimming Sports that tend to organize events specifically for people with disabilities MARLON SHIRLEY 2004 accomplishments, when he won three medals at the Paralympics in Athens. But he followed up on Athens by winning four goal medals at the 2005 International Paralympic Committee Open European Championships in Espoo, Finland. Shirley, an amputee who runs with a leg prosthesis, took first place in the 100 meters, 200, long jump and 4x100 relay. He won the 100 in seconds and the 200 in

81 Key Words Key questions
Inclusiveness –all people should have their needs abilities and aspirations recognized, understood and met within a supportive environment Integration – able bodied and disabled taking part together in the same activity Segregated Activity – People with disabilities participating separately from able bodied. Which Sports can disabled athletes be integrated with able bodied athletes? How can sports be adapted to enable disabled athletes to participate?

82 Adapted Sports Tennis – wheelchair users are allowed to let the ball bounce twice before playing it. Wheelchair basketball – two pushes and one bounce replaces bouncing whilst travelling / dribbling Swimming – some technique rules can be more flexible for some classifications and visually impaired people may need a tap on the head to let them know they’re nearing the end of the lane.

83 How can opportunities for people with disabilities be improved?
- Raise awareness amongst the disabled about opportunities already available - Raising awareness amongst the general public about disability issues - Specialist training programmes for staff who’ll be involved - Make access to and within facilities more manageable

84 Disability Sport England
Role - Promote participation in sport for people with all forms of disability Aims: provide opportunities promote the benefits support organizations providing opportunities educate enhance image, awareness and understanding encourage development

85 Socio-economic Groups
Generally individuals from the lower socio-economic groups have poorer health and mortality rates therefore the benefits of physical activity are particularly important to this group. They are very likely to suffer from social exclusion as they have less power, less disposable income etc. To help increase their levels of participation the following factors play an important role. Attitudes – they can afford sports. Need to change attitudes of other classes to the lower class – see them as equals Awareness – lower classes need to be taught how to be physically active – be provided with facilities and knowledge of what they can do Adaptation and modification – adapt rules /prices of clubs etc to enable less fortunate to play sports School PE – integration of different classes within PE at schools – schools target disadvantaged Access – facilities – clubs – can different classes play together? Funding – government investment programmes to help lower classes afford sports – provide more ‘free’ provision.

86 Exam Questions Jan 09 3d Mark Scheme June 08 2cd Mark Scheme
June 08 3b Jan 08 3b Mark Scheme

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