3Characteristics and Objectives PlayLeisure and RecreationActive leisureOutdoor and Adventurous activitiesSportPhysical Education
4PLAY - characteristics Characteristics of PlayFunSpontaneousNo strict structureRules Changeable and negotiatedIntrinsic ValueAlthough fun can be seriousFantasy world
5Play - objectives Children Adults Test boundaries Experience risk within safe limitsSocialisationPromotes independenceDevelops respectAllows social interactionEscape realityTo be childlikeCreativity and fantasy
6Leisure Used to be for privileged few – now essential for normal life Done during FREE TIMECHOICERELAXATIONENJOYMENT
7Recreation – “active positive and beneficial” – similar to leisure + Refresh mind and bodyRecuperate“re-create” – be creative – participate in activities for self-fulfilmentPhysical Recreation does all that through physical activity
8Active Leisure Physical recreation normally linked to sport Sport – competitive – not everyone wants competitionEveryone does need physical activity for health benefitsActive Leisure – physically active in leisure time – jogging, swimming, aerobics walking“Lifetime sports”
9Outdoor and Adventurous Activites Popularity increased in last 70 yearsGovernment supportMore availability
10Characteristics Outdoor Recreation Adventure Activities Activity done in natural environment – woods, lakesNot all outdoor recreation is adventureSame environmentElement of challenge and riskAll adventure activities considered outdoor recreation
11Outdoor and Adventure education Using natural environment as classroomChildren experience danger and risk in controlled mannerBenefitsAppreciate natural environmentSkills – map reading etc..Team workleadership
12Challenge and RiskDifference between outdoor and adventure lies in the concept of challenge and riskAdventure activities have an element of perceived or actual riskPerceived risk – dependent on skills and experience and actions they takeActual Risk – real danger – real risk – cannot be eliminated no matter how skilful
13Risk Risk relates to predictability If risk is predictable it is avoidable – danger is subjective – linked to knowledge and expertiseAt other end of scale a situation can be so unpredictable that danger is real and objectiveMortlock – experience – risk continuum page 131
14objectives Outdoor rec/education Adventure activities Learn to appreciate natural environmentActive leisure, lifetime sportExperience beyond normal routineEscape from mundaneExcitement, thrill, fearSelf-relianceSelf awareness/discoveryLeadershipTeam workTrust
15Urban adventureCost may prevent those from cities experiencing outdoor and adventurous activityOvercome by using parks, canals, climbing wallsFree running has developed to use features in the city to experience the thrill of outdoor education
16Sport Major part of modern life – “new religion” Sport England – 5 million people gave 1 billion hours to sport on a voluntary basisBillion pound industry
17Defining Sport Coakley defines Sport as…. "Sports are institutionalized competitive activities that involve rigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex physical skills by participants motivated by internal and external rewards."
18Sport Institutionalised Intrinsic/Extrinsic Fixed competitive structures – leagues, cups- overseen by governing bodyStandardised rules – set by governing bodyRules enforced by officialsStrategies for play, training, positions, equipmentCodes of conductWhy people playIntrinsic – internal factors – enjoyment, satisfactionExtrinsic – external – medals, prizes, money, trophies, praiseMost people motivated by a combination of the two
19Categories of sport Games – sub divisions Invasion - Football Based on National curriculum activities – and distinctive characteristicGames – sub divisionsInvasion - FootballStriking and Field - CricketCombat - JudoTarget - GolfNet sports - TennisDance - aestheticGames - outwitting opponentsGymnastics - replicationSwimming and Water SafetyAthletic Activities – maximising speed or distanceOutdoor and Adventurous – challenge and risk
20A sport is…. Competitive Selective by ability and excellence Serious – commitment neededRequires physical endeavourOrganisedInvolves “sportsmanship” – codes of conduct – fair play – moralsIs Darts a Sport?
21Develop sense of fair play Objectives of SportFulfil potentialchallengeRelease tensionHealthSelf esteemLearn to accept rulesWork with othersShow perseveranceDevelop sense of fair play
22Prevent anti-social behaviour Economic benefits Bring country together Benefits to societysocialisationPrevent anti-social behaviourEconomic benefitsBring country togetherImprove international relationsFeelgood factorCreate a healthier nation
23Sport related problems Over commercial – win at all costs Media – has too much influence – can change nature of gameHooliganismDrug abuseBad behaviour can influence youthMedia – more spectators than players
24Physical Education - characteristics “learning through the physical”Formal body of knowledge with an educational philosophyLearnt through experience of physical activityLearning fundamental physical/motor skillsLearning rules, tactics and etiquette of a range of activities.A means of developing positive social and personal values such as teamwork and cooperation.To develop the ability to appreciate the quality of movementTo understand Health-Related FitnessTo develop a lifelong love and engagement with exercise, physical activity and sport.
25How PE, Sport and Recreation overlap PE – learning how to serve in tennisSport – playing for the school tennis tournamentRecreation – playing tennis at lunch time
26Physical activity continuum Level of organisationPlay Leisure Physical Rec/Active Leisure Outdoor PE SportLeast organised most organisedCompetitionPlay Leisure Outdoor Physical Rec/Active Leisure PE SportLeast competitive most competitive
27Benefits of Physical activity To individualsStress reductionImproved fitness and healthDevelop social relationshipsMake friendschallengeSelf-fulfilmentTeam working skillsLearn about natural environment
28Improved health of the nation – reduce burden on NHS Economic benefits Benefits to societyImproved health of the nation – reduce burden on NHSEconomic benefitsPersonal development – role models in societyShop window effect – high level performers enhance reputation of countryReduce anti-social behaviour
29Exam Questions January 09 2a Mark scheme June 08 1 Mark Scheme June 08 2abc Mark schemeJune Mark SchemeJan 08 1ab Mark SchemeJune 07 3a Mark Scheme
30Leisure ProvisionPhysical Activity has major benefits to society in terms of health and the reduction of anti-social behaviour.Provided by three sectorsPublicPrivateVoluntaryWhat are the characteristics and goals of each?
31Public Sector Provided from taxation – local or national Or through other forms of government or public support – e.g lottery.Local authorities have responsibility for building and maintaining recreation facilitiesProvided for the public goodSome user groups are subsidised
32Characteristics of public sector Funded by taxation and lottery Facilities aim to break even not to make profitAim to encourage under-represented groupsPay for entry and useSubsidised for less well offRun for the good of the communityDay to day management may be by private company – DC leisureJoint and dual use – often partners with schools
33Private Sector Commercial companies Run for profit Growing sector – many employment opportunitiesRapid expansion in last 20 yearsHigh qualityHigher cost for membershipExclusive
34Characteristics of private sector Profit motive High quality Higher admission pricesCater for more well-off members of societyNo public service remit
35Characteristics of voluntary sector Not-for-profit Players pay to play through match fees and subsSupport roles filled by volunteersReceive grant aid from lottery, Sport England and Governing BodiesWill hold fund raisersSurplus funds used to improve facilities or services for membersCovers whole range of sport and leisure activity
36Inequality of opportunity – advantages and disadvantages of each sector Government keen to see more people physically active for 3 reasonsImproved health – less burden on the NHSReduce crime and anti-social behaviour by engaging people in purposeful physical activityEnhance community esteem and cohesion3 sectors because – one sector alone cannot achieve all thisInequality because..Some local areas poorly providedIndividuals lack resourcesNot everyone aware of the benefitsSocial exclusion or discrimination
37How good is each sector at providing “sport for all” Private Sector AdvantagesDisadvantagesReact quickly to demandMeet individual needsRestrict membership – so facility is rarely over-crowdedCosts highRestrictions – long waiting lists – exclusiveDiscrimination – rules to prevent some people joiningSport may suffer – thought only for certain types of people – tennis – middle class
38Voluntary Sector Advantages Disadvantages Just needs enthusiasm Huge range of activitiesExist for the benefit of the peopleVoluntary efforts keep costs lowLots of financial support from governmentSponsors often keen to helpUnplanned and relatively uncontrolled – relies on goodwillNo equal opps remitContinuity not guaranteed – relies on voluntary enthusiasmNo guarantee of financial supportCan still be socially exclusive
39Public Sector Advantages Disadvantages Required to act in the public goodResources allocated for this purposeNot driven by profit motiveFunds often limited – may not be enoughLocal authorities in economically disadvantaged areas may have less to spendLess financial freedom to borrow money to invest in facilities for the future
40“Best Value” – improving the public sector 1980’s introduced Compulsory Competitive Tendering (CCT) – Local authorities had to invite private companies to tender for the provision of local services. The best bid won the right to provide the leisure services for that area.Replaced in 2000 with “Best Value”Government policy aimed to improve local government services – including leisure and recreation – system operates around best value performance indicators – leisure services departments are inspected regularly and judged against criteria known as the 4C’s
414 C’sChallenge – are councils doing as well as they can, compared to the best councilsConsult – do they ask local communities what they thinkCompare – do they compare performance with other councils and the private and voluntary sectorCompete – have they demonstrated that they are managing the services in the best way possible.
42Recreation – Who manages what? Small- medium size Private Sector High QualitySpecialistProfitLocal/Public SectorOutdoor FacilitiesSocial provisionDual useMulti-sportFacilities – owned, leased, rentedProvision for self +wider societyClubs – amateurVoluntary SectorDepartment of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS)Sport England LotteryRecreational PolicyNat. governmentSocial Provision
43The role of National Government Department for Culture, Media and Sport“playground to podium”Sport England – one of the National sports Councils – primarily concerned withIncreased participationUK Sport – development of elite performers
44SPORT ENGLANDDeveloping community sport and increasing participation nationwideMajor Policy – National Framework for SportKey Partners – NGB’s, Sport Equity Alliance, National Sport foundation to address inequality for some groupsLiase with – Youth Sport Trust and UK Sport to create structure from first experience to elite performanceAchieves objectives through local initiatives putting into practice national frameworkLocally works with councils, schools and clubsAllocates funding from taxation and the lottery to achieve objectivesProvides advice to local and national providersConducts research in levels of participation to find out why individuals participate or notWorks with other government agencies to promote wider social policies for community health and well-being
45Exam Questions Jan 09 4c Mark Scheme Jan 08 4c Mark Scheme June 07 2c Mark Scheme
46National Curriculum PE and School Sport PE is defined as ..“a formalised body of knowledge and experience taught within educational establishments”Relatively new subject – 100 yearsDeveloped from two different strandsPublic Schools (upper and middle class) – emphasised team gamesState Elementary – health and fitness bias
47Public School Sports (1800 -1870) Upper ClassBullying commonLarge amounts of leisure timeHunting, Gambling and drinkingYounger boys used as servants – “fagging”Played games – “mob sports”Considered violent by head-teachersSome saw potential for games if controlled to channel boys energyThomas Arnold (Rugby School) used games as a form of “social control”The importance of Leadership was emphasised – senior boys organised the matchesSchools began to play each other and became more importantMasters recognised the potential for more than just improving disciplinePromoted games, brought back old boys to coach – standards of play improved as did facilities and equipment.Success on playing field a good way of promoting school
48Fair Play Games played with a strict code of conduct Seen as a way of instilling moral qualitiesLeadership, Discipline, Integrity, Loyalty, Bravery and Decision making.Games played for the team not the individualUltimately the idea that games developed both the physical and moral side of an individual was given the term “Athleticism” – “physical endeavour with moral integrity”This vision was used by De Coubertin when he created the modern olympic games in 1896
49Codification Games grew in popularity More schools played each other Schoolboys took games to universityNeed to agree a common set of rulesGroups set up to settle disputes fore-runners of Governing bodies
50Popular Rec Rational Rec Regular ParticipationComplex rulesHighly structuredSpectator based and participationRefined skills rather than forceMiddle/upper class developmentRegional/nationalSophisticated equipmentOccasional – Feast DaysFew rulesViolentForce rather than skillParticipationLower ClassLocalLimited structure
51Rational RecreationAs games developed in public schools society was changingIndustrial revolution brought people to towns from the countryside – urbanisationThis led to..Changed work patternsLess space – cramped terraced housingMove from seasonal time to machine time12 hour days six days a week – little leisure timeThese all contributed to the decline of popular recreation but why did rational recreation take it’s place?
52Rational Recreation – the middle class Industrial revolution also created the new “middle class”People who had profited from industrialisation.Factory owners, Doctors, clergymen.Wanted their children to experience the same sort of education as the upper classes.Created own version of public schoolsWith team games and it’s values central to these schoolsThey wanted to pass these on to wider society because of the physical and moral benefits associated with team sports.Factory owners created teams and facilities as did churches to encourage working people to participate.They improved working conditions and gradually the standard of living of the working class improved. They had more money and with the advent of half-day Wednesday and Saturday more leisure time.They hoped this would lead to a fitter and more moral society.Most of today’s sports were created between 1860 and 1890Rational Recreation was the name given to this new form of organised and regulated sport.
53Social changes – that helped the development of rational recreation Pre-industrialSeasonal TimeLimited TransportIlliteracyHarsh Rural LifestyleFeudal SystemAgriculturalUncivilizedLack of technologyPost-industrialMachine TimeImproved transportBusiness/Admin SkillsMore civilizedMiddle ClassIndustrialIncreased law and orderTechnological advancement
54State School Education 1870 - 1940 Public SchoolsState SchoolsAimsDevelop leaders of societyCharacteristicsUpper/Middle classHierarchichalPrefectsSingle SexPhysical ActivitiesTeam GamesAimsEducation for the massesDisciplined and obedient workforceMoralsCharacteristicsSmall, cramped spacesLocal and Free of chargeMixed Sex
56Developments in State School Physical Education Drill – boys only NCO’sGirls later1890 – Swedish GymFocus on therapeutic benefitsTeachers begin to takeoverWHY?Health/FitnessInstil develop discipline/accept roleEasy to implementMilitary serviceCheapLittle space required
601904-1919 Why? How? Improve health/physical development Medical basis – preventative measureRehabilitation after WW1Increase enjoymentTeacher uses more initiativeControl to Education boardFemale PE teachersHow?1904 Swedish system reinstated – therapeuticAge/sex differences noted1909 – games introduced1919 – post WW1 importance of recreation
611933 -1952 What? Why? 1933 Introduce group work Moves towards decentralisation1944/post WW2 Child centred approachemphasis on skillApparatus/gyms1952/1954 moving and growing/planning the programme - individualisedWhy?Encourage interaction between teachers and pupilsDevelop creativityDiscovery styleTeacher initiativePE teaching developed furtherInfluence of Dance movement - Laban
62POST WW2 – Key words Moving and Growing Planning the Programme Child CentredExploratoryDiscoveryObstacleMovementRecreative
631902Return to military following Boer War1904 Syllabus moved away from military towards therapeutic.19091909 Syllabus became Physical Training1919 Syllabus moved from PT to PE with educational principles1933World War 2 saw a lead towards Moving + Growing19541956 – new programmeIntroductionRight marker; fall in; stand at ease; attention; right turn; march; halt; about turn; march; halt; left turn; stand at easeFall in in 2 lines; attention; right turn; quick march; about turn etc…then free gymnastic running; halt; gymnastic skipping; halt; stand at easeFree running; signal – 1 large ring; free running; signal 4 rings; free running; 4 linesRunning + leaping; change speed; change direction; change shape; twisting + turningArms + trunkAttention; arms bend; up; bend; forward; bend; side; bend; down; stand at easeAttention; arms bend + stretch; x2; down; swing forward; up + down; with leg lunges – up + down; halt; stand at easeIn lines – elbow circling ; arms swing forwards+ backwards; cross leg sitting knee to ear; lateral reach + twisting; stand + touch ground; lying-hip turningPulling + pushing – pairs; obstinate calf; knee boxing; chinese boxing; pushing + pulling; tug-o-war; arm lock wrestling; crouch tug-o-warBody + legsAttention; double knee bend; onto hands- down; leg stretches; arms bend + stretch; x2; knees bend; up; stand at easeAttention; feet astride; trunk forward – bend; swing up with arms raised; down + up; swing sideways; bend sideways with arms raised; halt; stand at easeRunning – statues; farmers seeking rabbits; rabbits hopping + crouch hopping; alternately still on signalBody curling + stretching; forwards + backwards; lying alternatives; sitting alternatives; kneeling alternatives; standing + twistingApplied workAttention; astride with cross; forward, up, bend down; x2; at easeJumping astride x2; with arms raising; halt; stand at easeClass activity skillsThrough vaults in 3sSupported jumps + vaults in 2s + 3s exploring different alternatives.With dumb-bells; attention; swing up+downx2; swing up+through x2; halt; stand at ease; halt; right turn; quick march back to classCatherine Wheel; 1st line arm raised; ready; cartwheel; stand; 2nd line etc; return; deep breathing; arms raising on breathing; walk in lines back to classCorner activities –Frog jump into hoopsForward roll along mattressThrough vault in 3sHandstanding in pairsGame hand tennis – 2 teamsApparatus work. Twisting + turning on frame apparatus, boxes + benches. Changing round to new apparatus.
64National CurriculumEducation Reform Act 1988 introduced a National Curriculum with the aim of raising standards by centralising the decisions regarding what is taught in schools and making schools more accountable for their performance.Since 1988 the National Curriculum has been revised several times most recently in 2008 when schools again were given more say over what they include in their curriculum.
65New Secondary Curriculum The latest version of the National Curriculum gives greater freedom to schools to decide what to include depending on the needs and interests of it’s pupils. All schools have a common goal to developSuccessful learnersConfident IndividualsResponsible CitizensEvery subject including Physical Education should be aspiring to achieve these goals. How this is achieved is down to individual schools.
66Developing school-club links “Social inclusion” is the driving force behind the government’s policy for Sport and physical activity.Numerous documents have been published to outline how the government plans to use sport and physical activity in the fight against social exclusion.A sporting future for all – 2001Game Plan main objectives –increased participationImproved success at international level
67High Quality Physical Education and School Sport The better students experience of Sport and Physical activity at school the more likely they are to continue into adult life.To achieve high quality the government has implemented a number of strategiesSports Colleges – now over 400 – receive additional funding to promote good practice in their own and partner schools.Youth Sport Trust is the lead body for Sports Colleges and is charged with helping them to deliver the PE and Sport Strategy for Young People (PESSYP) in partnership with Sport England
68Exam questions Jan 09 2bcd Mark Scheme Jan 09 3abc June Mark schemeJune 08 3aJan 08 1bc Mark SchemeJan 08 3aJan 08 4aJun Mark Scheme
69Equal opportunitiesSport and physical activity are of benefit to individuals and society.Equality of opportunity means that all individuals have the same chance to participateInequality of opportunity exists for some groups of people because of a number of barriersLack of opportunityLack of personal resourcesDiscrimination - stereotypingSelf-discriminationGroup or peer pressure
70Who suffers from the barriers to participation? WomenEthnic MinoritiesDisabledLower socio-economic groups
71Gender - Reasons for lower participation of Women - Domestic Role- Social Stereotyping- Sport traditionally established and controlled by men- Less media coverage- Less money / power- Sexism – the belief that one sex is inferior to the other- Inequalities in sporting opportunities- Role models
72Research Perceived lack of interest of friends Family uninterested Teenage girls – Sport England 2006Muslim women – Womens Sport Foundation 2006Perceived lack of interest of friendsFamily uninterestedConcerns over weight and appearanceLack of self-confidenceLack of information about staying invovledNegative experiences in schoolsMixed groups – lack of single sex groupsProblems with dress codeLack of positive role models
73Solutions to Low Participation Equal Opportunities - Suffragettes –Right to Vote – 1917 Sex Discrimination Act (1975)Organisations - Women’s Sport FoundationMore Facilities for womenBetter Links between Schools and ClubsIncreased Media CoverageHealth Related Activities in schools – broader curriculum
74Ethnic Groups Group of people who share common origins Cultural, religious, racial or linguistic.Sport England research revealed differing levels of participation by different ethnic groups.Certain minority ethnic groups are under represented.
75Reasons for Low Participation - Home and family responsibilities- Lack of money- Work / study demands- Religious beliefs- NEGATIVE EXPERIENCESRacism – a set of ideas or beliefs based on the assumption that some races have distinct characteristics that make them more superior to others.
76Solutions to the lower participation rates from ethnic minority groups Sport Policies – Sporting Equals/CREInformationClubsSports leaders / development officersMedia Coverage – role modelsCampaigns to eliminate racism
77DisabilityUnderstand the effect of disability on opportunities for participation and the role of Disability for Sport EnglandDisability – a term used when an impairment adversely affects performancePhysicalSensoryMental
78Categories of Disabled Athletes Amputee Includes athletes who have at least one major joint in a limb missing,Cerebral palsy A disorder of movement and posture due to damage to an area, or areas, of the brain that control and coordinate muscle tone, reflexes, posture and movement..Intellectual disability Substantial limitation in intellectual functioning (an IQ of 70 or below), and two or more of the following: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure and work and have acquired their condition before age 18.
79Categories of Disabled Athletes Les autres 'the others'. A term used to describe athletes with a range of conditions which result in locomotive disorders - such as dwarfism - that don't fit into other classifications.Vision impaired Any condition which interferes with 'normal' vision.Wheelchair At least a 10% loss of function of their lower limbs, e.g. traumatic paraplegia and quadriplegia, spina bifida, poliomyelitis, amputees, cerebral palsy and all non ambulant les autres athletes.
80Disabled people are more likely to participate in some sports than others. Which sports are these?Why are disabled people more likely to participate in them?Horse ridingSwimmingSports that tend to organize events specifically for people with disabilitiesMARLON SHIRLEY2004 accomplishments, when he won three medals at the Paralympics in Athens. But he followed up on Athens by winning four goal medals at the 2005 International Paralympic Committee Open European Championships in Espoo, Finland. Shirley, an amputee who runs with a leg prosthesis, took first place in the 100 meters, 200, long jump and 4x100 relay. He won the 100 in seconds and the 200 in
81Key Words Key questions Inclusiveness –all people should have their needs abilities and aspirations recognized, understood and met within a supportive environmentIntegration – able bodied and disabled taking part together in the same activitySegregated Activity – People with disabilities participating separately from able bodied.Which Sports can disabled athletes be integrated with able bodied athletes?How can sports be adapted to enable disabled athletes to participate?
82Adapted SportsTennis – wheelchair users are allowed to let the ball bounce twice before playing it.Wheelchair basketball – two pushes and one bounce replaces bouncing whilst travelling / dribblingSwimming – some technique rules can be more flexible for some classifications and visually impaired people may need a tap on the head to let them know they’re nearing the end of the lane.
83How can opportunities for people with disabilities be improved? - Raise awareness amongst the disabled about opportunities already available- Raising awareness amongst the general public about disability issues- Specialist training programmes for staff who’ll be involved- Make access to and within facilities more manageable
84Disability Sport England Role - Promote participation in sport for people with all forms of disabilityAims:provide opportunitiespromote the benefitssupport organizations providing opportunitieseducateenhance image, awareness and understandingencourage development
85Socio-economic Groups Generally individuals from the lower socio-economic groups have poorer health and mortality rates therefore the benefits of physical activity are particularly important to this group. They are very likely to suffer from social exclusion as they have less power, less disposable income etc.To help increase their levels of participation the following factors play an important role.Attitudes – they can afford sports. Need to change attitudes of other classes to the lower class – see them as equalsAwareness – lower classes need to be taught how to be physically active – be provided with facilities and knowledge of what they can doAdaptation and modification – adapt rules /prices of clubs etc to enable less fortunate to play sportsSchool PE – integration of different classes within PE at schools – schools target disadvantagedAccess – facilities – clubs – can different classes play together?Funding – government investment programmes to help lower classes afford sports – provide more ‘free’ provision.
86Exam Questions Jan 09 3d Mark Scheme June 08 2cd Mark Scheme June 08 3bJan 08 3b Mark Scheme