Presentation on theme: "Big Picture Questions of UNTI VI – 1900CE-Present How do nationalism and self-determination impact global events? Are world cultures converging? If."— Presentation transcript:
Big Picture Questions of UNTI VI – 1900CE-Present How do nationalism and self-determination impact global events? Are world cultures converging? If so, how? How do increasing globalization, population growth, and resource use change the environment? Which resources are renewable and which are not?
KEY DEVELOPMENTS OF UNIT VI – 1900CE-Present Cause and Effects of WWI and WWII Redefinition and Repositioning of the West The Independence Movements and Developments in Asia and Africa Fragmentation vs. Globalization
WORLD WAR I Causes: The onset of war in 1914 resulted from years of tensions among European nations: Nationalism - set the stage for World War I in two ways: (1) National rivalries, (2) Nationalist aspirations Entangling Alliances Immediate Cause Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914 Major Events: Two Front War New Warfare (Tanks, Airplanes, Subs, Gas, Machine Guns) 1917 (US Enters, Russia Exits) 11th hour, 11th day, 11th month of 1918
The Versailles Treaty US vs France/Britain Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points: Self determination The need for an international peace organization Britain and France came to Versailles with different motivations. Loss of Men Damaged Infrastructure Revenge and Control The treaty that resulted was a compromise among the three countries. The many provisions include these important ones: Germany lost land and military Reparations League of Nations Ottoman Empire dismantled
The Global Depression Causes: Over-Indebtedness Disparages in Wealth and Income Financial Institution Structures Dawes Plan Protectionism (Tariffs) Decrease in Population Growth Immediate Causes: Stock Market Crash of 1929, Smoot-Hawley Tariff of 1930 Effects: The catastrophe caused many to rethink the free-enterprise system, and increased the appeal of alternate political and economic philosophies, such as communism and fascism. The Depression had a serious effect on the global economy, with global industrial production dropping about 36 percent between 1929 and 1932, and world trade sinking by 62 percent. Recovery: The Depression only ended with the advent of World War II, when production demands from the war stimulated the U.S. economy sufficiently to create jobs for workers and sell agricultural products on the world market.
THE NATURE OF WORLD WAR II Causes: Great Depression Rise of Dictators (Mussolini, Hitler, Japan Militarists) Versailles Treaty (War Guilt Clause, Military Restrictions) Immediate Cause: German Invasion of Poland in September 1939 Major Events: Total War Attack on Pearl Harbor, 1941 European Theater Turning Point Battle of Stalingrad, Pacific Theater Turning Point Battle of Midway, 1942 D-Day – June 6, 1944 Trench Warfare vs. Island Hopping
Genocide Genocide - ethnic based mass killings Japanese Concentration Camps Interned tens of thousands of Japanese Americans, taking away their business and homes for the duration of the war in the United States. Rape of Nanking For example, the Japanese tortured and killed as many as 300,000 Chinese citizens in Nanking after the city had fallen. Atomic Bombs The bombings of Hiroshima killed 78,000 Japanese, and Nagasaki killed tens of thousands more. Holocaust The largest slaughter resulted from Hitler's decision to eliminate Jews in Germany and eastern Europe resulted in 6 million deaths in concentration camps that specialized in efficient methods of extermination.
International Organizations League of Nations vs. United Nations UN - main purpose was to negotiate disputes among nations, but it also has addressed world issues, such as trade, women's conditions, child labor, hunger, and environmental protection. North Atlantic Treaty Organization vs. Warsaw Pact NATO - was formed in 1949 as a defensive alliance among the U.S., Canada, and western European nations.
The Cold War The Cold War: The decades-long period after World War II that centered around tensions between the two most powerful countries that emerged from the war: the United States and the Soviet Union. The era marks the replacement of European hegemony with two competing power centers. The globe during this time was divided into three parts: First World Second World Third World
THE ROOTS OF THE COLD WAR Causes: Red Scare Problems Developed During WWII Major Events: Protection against the communists: Marshall Plan – money given to democratic nations protecting them from the “Iron Curtain” Space Race ICBMS Cuban Missile Crisis
Communism’s Successes and Failures Russia Stalin’s Plans: 5 Year Plans (Collectivization, Industrialization) Great Purge Khruschev’s Plan: De-Stalinization of Russia Gorbachev’s Plan Perestroika – Restructuring Glasnost – Openness Democratization – Rule By People China Mao Zedong’s Plans: Great Leap Forward Cultural Revolution of 1966 Deng Xiaoping: Socialist Market Economy
Nationalism Nationalism in India Native elite had formed nationalist groups in India before World War I began, and the struggle against British control continued until India finally won its independence in The Hindus (Nehru) vs. the Muslims (Jinnah) Mohandas K. Gandhi Ahisma (nonviolence) Satyagraha (the search for truth) Nationalism in Southeast Asia Throughout the area, independence leaders were also drawn to communism, and French Indochina was no exception. Vietnam War and Ho Chi Minh
Nationalism - Latin America Nationalism in Latin America took the form of internal conflict, since almost all the nations had achieved independence during the 19th century. However, most were still ruled by an authoritarian elite. Democracy vs. Militarism Mexico Mexican Elites Controlled Agriculture and American Businessmen Controlled Economy Under Porfirio Diaz. Revolution of 1910 began with Military Elites and Spread to Peasants under Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa. Revolution raged on until 1934 and President Cardenas (Single Political Party until 1990s) Argentina and Brazil Controlled by elites. The Great Depression hit both countries hard, and stimulated coups against the governments. Getulio Vargas took over in Brazil in 1930 and Juan Peron took over in Argentina in Authoritarian rule dominated both countries until the second half of the century.
TWENTIETH CENTURY TECHNOLOGY The new inventions sparked by the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century continued to develop during the 20th century. New military technologies resulted from the two world wars, including tanks, poison gas, airplanes, jet engines, radar, submarines, and improved weaponry. Nuclear Energy Trucks, airplanes, and trains became bigger and faster, cutting transportation costs. Both the United States and the Soviet Union built highway systems and airports and constructed nuclear power plants. The Computer Age One of the most important new technologies of the 20th century was the computer. At first they were large and very expensive, so that only large corporations, governments, and universities could afford them. However, desktop computers began replacing typewriters by the mid- 1980s, and by century's end, computers were smaller, more powerful, and more affordable than ever before. The internet rapidly developed and expanded during the 1990s, and its ability to connect computers to one another and access information transformed communications by the early 21st century.
Business Developments Multinational Corporations - Computers helped make possible the proliferation of multinational corporations; one result of the growth of transnational corporations was the increasing difficulty that national governments had in regulating them (Sony, Honda, Microsoft, Facebook) Pacific Rim – Countries located around the Pacific Ocean that experienced extraordinary economic growth Japan - Japan experienced a faster rate of economic growth in the 1970s and 1980s than did any other major developed economy, growing at about 10 percent a year. Asian Tigers (South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore) - Followed the model of close cooperation between government and industry.; the initial economic bursts of Singapore and Hong Kong were based on shipping and banking and commercial services; Hong Kong eventually developed highly competitive textile and consumer electronic industries.
BLACK NATIONALISM Blacks in Africa during the 1950s asserted themselves through independence movements that resulted in the widespread decolonization of the era. This spurred the United States and Martin Luther King The Soviet Union often pointed to the discrimination that black Americans experienced as an indication of the evils of capitalism. Brown v Board of Education 1980s - Anti-apartheid movement in South Africa Nelson Mandela.
FEMINIST MOVEMENTS Both World Wars had the effect of liberating western women from their old subservient roles of the 19th century. Suffrage In both cases, when men left for war, women stepped into jobs that kept the economies going during wartime. After the Red Scare faded and with the increasing Black Nationalism movements, the feminist movement revived during the 1960s to claim other rights than suffrage for women.
“GREEN” MOVEMENTS During the 1960s environmental activists began movements devoted to slowing the devastating consequences of population growth, industrialization, and the expansion of agriculture. These "green" movements raised public awareness of the world's shrinking rainforests and redwood trees, the elimination of animal species, and the pollution of water and air. Predictably, pressure on environments is greatest in developing countries, where population is increasing the most rapidly. By the early 21st century, environmental movements were most effectively in industrialized nations, where they have formed interest groups and political parties to pressure governments to protect the environment.
Individual Civilizations vs. Interaction Since the classical period, world history has involved a tension between the differing natures of individual civilizations and the forces of interaction that cause civilizations to share common culture, science, and technology. Globalization An integration of social, technological, scientific, environmental, economic, and cultural activities of nations that has resulted from increasing international contacts. Modern transportation and communication Increasing international trade Spread of "popular culture” Sharing of international science International business Fragmentation The tendency for people to base their loyalty on ethnicity, language, religion, or cultural identity. The decline of European power The breakup of multicultural empires The end of the cold war